Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 651–660 | Cite as

Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases in Saudi Arabia: a Tertiary Care Hospital Experience over a Period of Three Years (2010–2013)

  • Bandar Al-Saud
  • Hamoud Al-Mousa
  • Sulaiman Al Gazlan
  • Abdulaziz Al-Ghonaium
  • Rand Arnaout
  • Amal Al-Seraihy
  • Sahar Elshorbagi
  • Nazeema Elsayed
  • Jawad Afzal
  • Hasan Al-Dhekri
  • Saleh Al-Muhsen
Original Research



Primary immunodeficiencies (PID) are a group of heterogeneous diseases. Epidemiological studies from databases worldwide show geographical variation. In this study the objective is to determine the spectrum of PID in Saudi Arabia by analyzing the database in a referral tertiary hospital.


This is a prospective data collection by interviews and medical chart review for all PID patients followed at the King Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research Center (KFSH&RC) from May 2010 to April 2013.


A total of 502 patients presented (53 % male and 47 % female). Combined immunodeficiencies were the most common (59.7 %), followed by predominantly antibody deficiencies (12.3 %), congenital defects of phagocyte (9.4 %), combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (6.2 %), disease of immune dysregulation (6 %), complement deficiencies (5.8), and defects in innate immunity (0.6 %). The most common combined immunodeficiencies phenotype was T-B-SCID (17 %). The patients’ ages ranged from less than 1 year old to 78 years, and 394 patients (78.2 %) are in the paediatrics age group (<14 years). The overall mean age of symptoms onset was 17 months and the overall mean delay in diagnosis was 21.6 months. Recurrent infections were the most common occurring clinical presentation (66 %), followed by family history (26 %). Consanguinity was found in 75 % of the patients. A total of 308 (61 %) patients had undergone stem cell transplantation (SCT).


The study revealed that combined immunodeficiencies are not uncommon and are the most frequent occurring diagnosis in our patient population. This study is a prerequisite to establish a national registry of primary immunodeficiency in Saudi Arabia.


Primary immunodeficiencies disorders severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) infections epidemiology stem cell transplantation 



We would like to thank the following individuals: Dr. Sultan Al- Sedairy Charmaine of the Research Center for the ongoing support. Dr. Edward Devol chairman of the Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Scientific Computing Department (BESCD) for the support and continuing collaboration, Mansoor Baig for the software development, Shazia sobhani for the database development and management, Samia Alhashim for the statistical analysis, bader Alhablani and Saleh Alageel for the administrative support, we also like to thank our registrars Manal Mohammed and Ahsan Yassen.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Bandar Al-Saud
    • 1
    • 2
  • Hamoud Al-Mousa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Sulaiman Al Gazlan
    • 3
  • Abdulaziz Al-Ghonaium
    • 1
  • Rand Arnaout
    • 1
    • 2
  • Amal Al-Seraihy
    • 4
  • Sahar Elshorbagi
    • 1
  • Nazeema Elsayed
    • 5
  • Jawad Afzal
    • 6
  • Hasan Al-Dhekri
    • 1
  • Saleh Al-Muhsen
    • 1
    • 7
  1. 1.Section of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Department of PediatricsKing Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Colleges of MedicineAlfaisal UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Department of MedicineKing Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  4. 4.Department of Pediatric Hematology and OncologyKing Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  5. 5.Ambulatory Care Nursing, Nursing AffairsKing Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  6. 6.Biostatistics, Epidemiology, and Scientific Computing DepartmentKing Faisal Specialist Hospital & Research CenterRiyadhSaudi Arabia
  7. 7.Department of Pediatrics, College of MedicineKing Saud UniversityRiyadhSaudi Arabia

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