Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 748–758 | Cite as

Nodular Regenerative Hyperplasia in Common Variable Immunodeficiency

  • Ivan J. Fuss
  • Julia Friend
  • Zhiqiong Yang
  • Jian Ping He
  • Lubna Hooda
  • James Boyer
  • Liqiang Xi
  • Mark Raffeld
  • David E. Kleiner
  • Theo Heller
  • Warren Strober
Original Research



Patients with Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) are subject to the development of a liver disease syndrome known as nodular regenerative hyperplasia (NRH). The purpose of this study was to define the characteristics and course of this complication of CVID.


CVID patients were evaluated by retrospective and prospective clinical course review. Liver biopsy specimens were evaluated for evidence of NRH and studied via RT-PCR for cytokine analysis.


NRH in our CVID patient population occurred in approximately 5 % of the 261 patients in our total CVID study group, initially presenting in most cases with an elevated alkaline phosphatase level. While in some patients the disease remained static, in a larger proportion a more severe disease developed characterized by portal hypertension, the latter leading to hypersplenism with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia and, in some cases, to ascites. In addition, a substantial proportion of patients either developed or presented initially with an autoimmune hepatitis-like (AIH-like) liver disease that resulted in severe liver dysfunction and, in most cases to death due to infections. The liver histologic findings in these AIH-like patients were characterized by underlying NRH pattern with superimposed interface hepatitis, lymphocytic infiltration and fibrosis. Immunologic studies of biopsies of NRH patients demonstrated the presence of infiltrating T cells producing IFN-γ, suggesting that the NRH is due to an autoimmune process.


Overall, these studies provide evidence that NRH may not be benign but, can be a severe and potentially fatal disease complication of CVID that merits close monitoring and intervention.


CVID NRH autoimmune liver hypertension cytokine 



Lubna Hooda was funded in whole or in part by the Frederick National Laboratory under Contract No. HHSN261200800001E. The contents of this publication does not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the Department of Health and Human Services nor does mention of trade names, commercial products or organizations imply endorsement by the US government.

Sources of funding

Funding is from the intramural program of the NIAID, NCI, National Institutes of Health. None of the authors has any financial relationships with industries that have an interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the manuscript.

Supplementary material

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10875_2013_9873_MOESM2_ESM.doc (15 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York (outside the USA) 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ivan J. Fuss
    • 1
    • 7
  • Julia Friend
    • 1
    • 8
  • Zhiqiong Yang
    • 1
  • Jian Ping He
    • 3
  • Lubna Hooda
    • 1
    • 2
  • James Boyer
    • 4
  • Liqiang Xi
    • 5
  • Mark Raffeld
    • 5
  • David E. Kleiner
    • 5
  • Theo Heller
    • 6
  • Warren Strober
    • 1
  1. 1.Mucosal Immunity Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  2. 2.Clinical Research Directorate/CMRP, SAIC-Frederick, Inc.Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer ResearchFrederickUSA
  3. 3.Mucosal Immunobiology Section, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  4. 4.Division of Digestive DiseasesYale UniversityBethesdaUSA
  5. 5.Laboratory of Pathology, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  6. 6.Liver Diseases Branch, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney DiseasesNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA
  7. 7.Mucosal Immunity SectionLaboratory of Host DefensesBethesdaUSA
  8. 8.Urologic Oncology Branch, National Cancer InstituteNational Institutes of HealthBethesdaUSA

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