Journal of Clinical Immunology

, Volume 31, Issue 3, pp 465–471 | Cite as

Immunomodulatory Properties of Borage (Echium amoenum) on BALB/c Mice Infected with Leishmania major



Leishmaniasis is caused by parasitic protozoa transmitted by the bite of a female sand fly and is currently endemic in 88 countries. BALB/c mice are highly susceptible to the infection with the parasite Leishmania major, and this susceptibility has been attributed, in part, to the expansion of Th2 cells, production of their cytokines, and downregulation of Th1 cytokine, interferon gamma (IFN-γ). In this report, we used both aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Iranian borage (Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey) for treatment of L. major infection in BALB/c mice. We found that both extracts had immunomodulatory properties and increased the level of IFN-γ and lowered the parasite burden in the proximal lymph nodes and prevented the necrosis of the footpad as compared with the untreated infected mice. These results may provide a basis for further studies directed toward the use of the Iranian borage against L. major infection.


Borage Echium amoenum Fisch & C.A. Mey Leishmania major promastigote BALB/c mice anti-Leishmania herbal medicine 



We would like to thank Ms. M. Vaziri for parasite preparation; and Dr. H. Darabi, DR. M. Mahdavi, Mr. A. Nejad-Moghaddam, and Ms. M. Holakuyee for technical advice. This project was supported by grant no. 302 from the Pasteur Institute of Iran.


We have nothing to disclose, and there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hybridoma Laboratory, Department of ImmunologyPasteur Institute of IranTehranIran
  2. 2.Hybridoma Laboratory, Department of ImmunologyPasteur Institute of Iran, Payam Noor UniversityTehranIran

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