Advertisement

Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 73, Issue 4, pp 381–395 | Cite as

Ambient volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of industrial central India

  • Saroj Sharma
  • Basant Giri
  • K. S. Patel
Article

Abstract

Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are an important group of compounds because of their role in atmospheric chemistry and the risk they pose to human health and ecosystem. Therefore, the interest in determining VOCs in the atmosphere has increased over the last few decades to understand their emission, distribution, and sources. Considering the expanding urbanization and increasing use of fuels, very limited data of VOCs in India is available. This paper describes the chemical analysis of 12 light VOCs in 144 ambient air samples collected from three different sites near Raipur, India during a period of April, 2006-March, 2007 in order to understand their temporal and spatial distributions. This data has provided some important insights into the VOC profile, for the first time, of an industrial area in India. The annual average concentrations of all 12 VOCs in our study ranged from 43.2 to 160.4 μg m−3 (mean: 95.6 ± 31.0). The annual average concentration of individual VOCs in Raipur region ranged from 3.4 μg m−3 for xylenes to 18.3 μg m−3 for n-butane. n-Butane, i-butane, and propane were the three most abundant pollutants among all of the VOCs measured. The observed concentrations of these compounds in Raipur region were comparable to other Asian cities with some exceptions. The levels of total VOCs showed seasonal variations with a statistically significant winter maximum and lower values during summer and monsoon ranging from 55.9 ± 9.9 μg/m3 in August to 144.5 ± 15.5 μg/m3 in January. Sources of these VOCs have been described using species ratios and correlation studies.

Keywords

VOCs Raipur Urban air quality Seasonal variation Emission sources 

References

  1. Atkinson, R.: Atmospheric chemistry of VOCs and NOx. Atmos Environ 34, 2063–2101 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barletta, B., Meinardi, S., Simpson, I.J., Khwaja, H.A., Blake, D.R., Rowland, F.S.: Mixing ratios of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere of Karachi, Pakistan. Environ 36, 3429–3443 (2002)Google Scholar
  3. Blake, D.R., Rowland, F.S.: Urban leakage of liquefied petroleum gas and its impact on Mexico City air quality. Science 269, 953–956 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Borbon, A., Locoge, N., Veillerot, M., Galloo, J.C., Guillermo, R.: Characterisation of NMHCs in a French urban atmosphere: overview of the main sources. Sci Total Environ 292, 177–191 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Brocco, D., Fratarcangeli, R., Lepore, L., Petricca, M., Ventrone, I.: Determination of aromatic hydrocarbons in urban air of Rome. Atmos Environ 31, 557–566 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Camel, V., Caude, M.: Trace enrichment methods for the determination of organic pollutants in ambient air. J Chromatogr A 710, 3–19 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chameides, W.L., Fehsenfeld, F., Rodgers, M.O., Cardelino, C., Martinez, J., Parrish, D., Lonneman, W., Lawson, R., Rasmussen, R.A., Zimmerman, P., Greenberng, J., Wang, T.: Ozone precursor relationships in the ambient atmosphere. J Geophys Res Atmos 97, 6037–6055 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Chattopadhyay, G., Samanta, G., Chatterjee, P.: Determination of benzene, toluene and xylene in ambient air of Calcutta for three years during winter. Environ Technol 18, 211–218 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chen, T.Y., Simpson, I.J., Blake, D.R., Rowland, F.S.: Impact of the leakage of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) on Santiago air quality. Geophys Res Lett 28, 2193–2196 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cheng, L., Fu, L., Angle, R.P., Sandhu, H.S.: Seasonal variations of volatile organic compounds in Edmonton. Alberta Atmos Environ 31, 239–246 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chou, C.C.K., Lee, C.T., Chen, W.N., Chang, S.Y., Chen, T.K., Lin, C.Y., Chen, J.P.: Lidar observations of the diurnal variations in the depth of urban mixing layer: a case study on the air quality deterioration in Taipei. Taiwan Sci Total Environ 374, 156–166 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Derwent, R.G., Davies, T.J., Delaney, M., Dollard, G.J., Field, R.A., Dumitrean, P., Pepler, S.A.: Analysis and interpretation of the continuous hourly monitoring data for 26 C2-C8 hydrocarbons at 12 United Kingdom sites during 1996. Atmos Environ 34, 297–312 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deshmukh, D.K., Deb, M.K., Mkoma, S.L.: Size distribution and seasonal variation of size-segregated particulate matter in the ambient air of Raipur city, India. Air Qual Atmos Health 6, 259–276 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Ding, W. H., & Wang, J. L.: Spatial concentration profiles of C 2-C 6 hydrocarbons in the atmosphere of Taipei metropolitan area. Chemosphere 37(6), 1187–1195 (1998)Google Scholar
  15. Dutta, C., Som, D., Chatterjee, A., Mukherjee, A.K., Jana, T.K., Sen, S.: Mixing ratios of carbonyls and BTEX in ambient air of Kolkata, India and their associated health risk. Environ Monit Assess 148, 97–107 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Filella, I., Penuelas, J.: Daily, weekly and seasonal relationships among VOCs, NOx and O3 in a semi-urban area near Barcelona. J Atmos Chem 54, 189–201 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Finlayson-Pitts, B.J., Pitts, J.N.: Tropospheric air pollution: ozone, airborne toxics, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and particles. Science 276, 1045–1051 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gee, I.L., Sollars, C.J.: Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds in Latin American and Asian cities. Chemosphere 36, 2497–2506 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Genc, D.D., Yesilyurt, C., Tuncel, G.: Air pollution forecasting in Ankara, Turkey using air pollution index and its relation to assimilative capacity of the atmosphere. Environ Monit Assess 166, 11–27 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Giri, B., Patel, K.S., Jaiswal, N.K., Sharma, S., Ambade, B., Wang, W., Simonich, S.L.M., Simoneit, B.R.T.: Composition and sources of organic tracers in aerosol particles of industrial central India. Atmos Res 120, 312–324 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Guo, H., So, K. L., Simpson, I. J., Barletta, B., Meinardi, S., & Blake, D. R.: C 1–C 8 volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Hong Kong: Overview of atmospheric processing and source apportionment. Atmospheric Environment 41, 1456–1472 (2007)Google Scholar
  22. Hartmann, R., Voght, U., Baumbach, G., Seyfioglu, R., Muezzinoglu, A.: Results of emission and ambient air measurements of VOC in Izmir. Environ Res Forum 7, 107–112 (1997)Google Scholar
  23. Hewitt CNE (1998) Reactive hydrocarbons in the atmosphere: Academic pressGoogle Scholar
  24. Hoque, R.R., Khillare, P.S., Agarwal, T., Shridhar, V., Balachandran, S.: Spatial and temporal variation of BTEX in the urban atmosphere of Delhi. India Sci Total Environ 392, 30–40 (2008)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Khoder, M.I.: Ambient levels of volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Greater Cairo. Atmos Environ 41, 554–566 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lee, S.C., Chiu, M.Y., Ho, K.F., Zou, S.C., Wang, X.: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in urban atmosphere of Hong Kong. Chemosphere 48(2), 375–382 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mayrsohn, H., Crabtree, J.H.: Source reconciliation of atmospheric hydrocarbons. Atmos Environ 10, 137–143 (1976)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. McCarthy, M.C., O’Brien, T.E., Charrier, J.G., Hafner, H.: Characterization of the chronic risk and hazard of hazardous air pollutants in the united states using ambient monitoring data. Environ Health Perspect 117, 790–796 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Mohan Rao, A.M., Pandit, G.G., Sain, P., Sharma, S., Krishnamoorthy, T.M., Nambi, K.S.V.: Non-methane hydrocarbons in industrial locations of Bombay. Atmos Environ 31, 1077–1085 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Monod, A., Sive, B.C., Avino, P., Chen, T., Blake, D.R., Sherwood Rowland, F.: Monoaromatic compounds in ambient air of various cities: a focus on correlations between the xylenes and ethylbenzene. Atmos Environ 35, 135–149 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Morikawa, T., Wakamatsu, S., Tanaka, M., Uno, I., Kamiura, T., Maeda, T.: C2-C5 hydrocarbon concentrations in Central Osaka. Atmos Environ 32, 2007–2016 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Na, K., Kim, Y.P.: Seasonal characteristics of ambient volatile organic compounds in Seoul. Korea Atmos Environ 35, 2603–2614 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Na, K., Kim, Y.P., Moon, K.C.: Diurnal characteristics of volatile organic compounds in the Seoul atmosphere. Atmos Environ 37, 733–742 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Na, K., Kim, Y.P., Moon, I., Moon, K.C.: Chemical composition of major VOC emission sources in the Seoul atmosphere. Chemosphere 55, 585–594 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ng, N.L., Kroll, J.H., Chan, A.W.H., Chhabra, P.S., Flagan, R.C., Seinfeld, J.H.: Secondary organic aerosol formation from m-xylene, toluene, and benzene. Atmos Chem Phys 7, 3909–3922 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Padhy, P., Varshney, C.: Total non methane volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere of Delhi. Atmos Environ 34, 577–584 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Parra, M.A., Elustondo, D., Bermejo, R., Santamaria, J.M.: Ambient air levels of volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in a medium size city in Northern Spain. Sci Total Environ 407, 999–1009 (2009)Google Scholar
  38. Perry, R., Gee, I.L.: Vehicle emissions and effects on air quality: indoors and outdoors. Indoor Built Environ 3, 224–236 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Perry, R., Gee, I.L.: Vehicle emissions in relation to fuel composition. Sci Total Environ 169, 149–156 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Ras, M.R., Borrull, F., Marcé, R.M.: Sampling and preconcentration techniques for determination of volatile organic compounds in air samples. TrAC Trends Anal Chem 28, 347–361 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Rodolfo Sosa, E., Humberto Bravo, A., Violeta Mugica, A., Pablo Sanchez, A., Emma Bueno, L., Krupa, S.: Levels and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds in southwestern area of Mexico City. Environ Pollut 157, 1038–1044 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Russo, R.S., Zhou, Y., White, M.L., Mao, H., Talbot, R., Sive, B.C.: Multi-year (2004–2008) record of nonmethane hydrocarbons and halocarbons in New England: seasonal variations and regional sources. Atmos Chem Phys 10, 4909–4929 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sahu, L.K., Lal, S.: Distributions of C2–C5 NMHCs and related trace gases at a tropical urban site in India. Atmos Environ 40, 880–891 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Scheff, P.A., Wadden, R.A.: Receptor modeling of volatile organic compounds. 1. Emission inventory and validation. Environ Sci Tech 27, 617–625 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sharma, S.: Diurnal study of VOCs in Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Res J Eng Technol 5, 7–8 (2014)Google Scholar
  46. Sharma, U.K., Kajii, Y., Akimoto, H.: Characterization of NMHCs in downtown urban center Kathmandu and rural site in Nagarkot in Nepal. Atmos Environ 34, 3297–3307 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Shirai, T., Yokouchi, Y., Blake, D.R., Kita, K., Izumi, K., Koike, M., Kondo, Y.: Seasonal variations of atmospheric C2–C7 nonmethane hydrocarbons in Tokyo. J Geophys Res Atmos 112, 1984–2012 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Singh, H.B.Z., Zimmerman, P.R.: Atmospheric distribution and sources of non-methane hydrocarbons. Wiley, New York (1992)Google Scholar
  49. Singh, H.B., Salas, L.J., Cantrell, B.K., Redmond, R.M.: Distribution of aromatic hydrocarbons in the ambient air. Atmos Environ 19, 1911–1919 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Srivastava, A.: Variability in VOC concentrations in an urban area of Delhi. Environ Monit Assess 107, 363–373 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Srivastava, A., Joseph, A.E., Devotta, S.: Volatile organic compounds in ambient air of Mumbai-India. Atmos Environ 40, 892–903 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. USEPA 2004 Air quality criteria for particulate matter (2004)Google Scholar
  53. WHO (2000) Air Quality Guidelines for Europe. Copenhagen: WHO Regional Publication, European Series. World Health Organization. Regional Office for EuropeGoogle Scholar
  54. Yamamoto, N., Okayasu, H., Murayama, S., Mori, S., Hunahashi, K., Suzuki, K.: Measurement of volatile organic compounds in the urban atmosphere of Yokohama, Japan, by an automated gas chromatographic system. Atmos Environ 34(26), 4441–4446 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Yurdakul, S., Civan, M., Tuncel, G.: Volatile organic compounds in suburban Ankara atmosphere, Turkey: sources and variability. Atmos Res 120, 298–311 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryPt. Ravishankar Shukla UniversityRaipurIndia
  2. 2.Kathmandu Institute of Applied SciencesKathmanduNepal
  3. 3.Govt. Kamla Devi Girls CollegeRajnandgaonIndia

Personalised recommendations