Precipitation chemistry and ozone and sulfate concentrations in the ocean atmosphere observed by multi-year cruising in East Asia and West Oceania (35°N–35°S, 100–135°E) in August and September
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A comprehensive study on the chemistry of deposition and the concentration of tropospheric ozone and particulate sulfate in the ocean atmosphere was carried out for the data sets in 1990’s. It is important to study the atmospheric situation over the past years as well as the latest, especially in the East Asian region where emission amount of anthropogenic air pollutants have increased year by year due to rapid economic growth. The survey was conducted for 5 years in East Asia and West Oceania (35°N–35°S, 100–135°E) in August and September in 1990’s. The purpose of the survey was to study and understand the chemistry of deposition and the concentration of tropospheric ozone and particulate sulfate in the ocean atmosphere comprehensively in one project. Rainfall over the ocean was insufficiently neutralized. Gas and aerosol over the ocean were mature, i.e., well-mixed, during the period of the transportation. The characteristic latitudinal dependence was observed in the tropospheric ozone concentration, namely, higher in the southern hemisphere and lower in the northern hemisphere (approximately 25 ppb in the 10–40°S region and 5–15 ppb in the 20–40°N region). On the other hand, high concentrations of tropospheric ozone of over 30 ppb were observed in the northern hemisphere, which was attributable to the long-range transportation. The TSP concentration was approximately under the level of 40 μg m−3 irrespectively of the latitude; in contrast, the nss-SO4 2- concentration showed a clear latitudinal dependence, i.e., higher in the northern hemisphere and lower in the southern hemisphere. The background levels of the nss-SO4 2- concentration were approximately 0.5 μg m−3 in the 10–40°S region and 2–3 μg m−3 and 4–5 μg m−3 in the 0–20°N and 20–40°N regions, respectively.
KeywordsDeposition Ozone Sulfate Ocean atmosphere East Asia West Oceania
We are grateful to the captain and crew of the Orient Venus. We gratefully acknowledge the staff members who collected the samples for this project. We would like to express the deepest appreciation to Dr. Hiroshi Tanimoto for the insightful comments and suggestions.
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