Measuring and modeling black carbon (BC) contamination in the SE Tibetan Plateau
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Black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured in the southeast (SE) Tibetan Plateau along the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River during winter (between November, 2008 and January, 2009). The measured mean concentration (0.75 μg m−3) is significantly higher than the concentrations (0.004–0.34 μg m−3) measured in background and remote regions of the globe, indicating that Tibetan glaciers are contaminated by BC particles in the Plateau. Because BC particles play important roles for the climate in the Tibetan Plateau, the sources and causes of the BC contamination need to be understood and investigated. In this study, a mesocale dynamical model (WRF) with BC particle modules is applied for analyzing the measurement. The analysis suggests that the major sources for the contamination in the SE Plateau were mainly from the BC emissions in eastern Indian and Bangladesh. Because of the west prevailing winds, the heavy emissions in China had no significant effects on the SE Plateau in winter. Usually, the high altitude of the Himalayas acts a physical wall, inhibiting the transport of BC particles across the mountains to the plateau. This study, however, finds that the Yarlung Tsangpo River valley causes a 'leaking wall', whereby under certain meteorological conditions, BC particles are being transported up onto the glacier. This too causes variability of BC concentrations (ranging from 0.3 to 1.5 μg m−3) in a time scale of a few days. The analysis of the variability suggests that the “leaking wall” effect cannot occur when the prevailing winds were northwest winds, during which the BC transport along the valley of the Yarlung Tsangpo River was obstructed. As a result, large variability of BC concentration was observed due to the change of prevailing wind directions.
KeywordsElemental carbon Leaking wall Himalayas
This research is partially supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Grant No. 40925009, 40575060 and 40705046, Ministry of Science and Technology of China under Grant No. 2006BAC12B00; The Beijing Natural Science Foundation under Grant No. 80710002; The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation and operated by UCAR.
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