Sources, distribution and variability of hydrocarbons in total atmospheric suspended particulates of two Brazilian areas influenced by sugarcane burning
- 346 Downloads
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), such as n-alkanes, hopanes and steranes, were studied in relation to total atmospheric suspended particulates (TSP). Two representative Brazilian cities affected by sugarcane monoculture practices, with their rural surroundings, were chosen for the study. The cities chosen were Maceió (state of Alagoas, NE-Brazil) and Campos dos Goytacazes (state of Rio de Janeiro, SE-Brazil). Samples were collected during the harvesting period, when sugarcane burning occurs, and during the non-harvesting period. The aliphatic hydrocarbon fingerprints suggest a marked contribution of biogenic inputs and a slight contamination by aliphatics in areas far from the urban regions. In the urban areas, some petroleum contributions were observed, marked by the presence of hopanes (m/z 191) and steranes (m/z 217) in the mass chromatographic profiles. A marked increase in PAH concentrations was detected during the sugarcane burning periods, mainly at Campos dos Goytacazes. In a similar approach, n-alkane concentrations and BaP/nC24 ratios were higher during the sugarcane burning periods. These increases were mainly associated with PAH production by the pyrogenic process in relation to aliphatic hydrocarbons with the same carbon numbers. The PAH isomeric ratios and the mixture of petrogenic and pyrogenic compounds of the TSP suggest atmospheric contamination for all regions as a whole, but the more elevated pyrogenic contribution during the sugarcane burning period implies that the impact of this activity is relevant.
KeywordsPAHs Aliphatic hydrocarbons Sugarcane burning Petroleum biomarkers Pollution sources
The authors acknowledge financial support from the POLCAMAR project (Process no. 590002/2005-8) and fellowships from CNPq, the Brazilian Research Council. We would like to thank Dr. Emmanuel V. Silva Filho (UFF) and Wilson F. da Silva (UFAL) for sample collection, Robson Brandão (UFAL) and Lício Caetano (UFRJ) for map location and the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation for the use of the atmospheric sample collectors.
- Commission Decision, (EU) No. 107 of December 2004. Relating to arsenic, cadmium, mercury, nickel and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ambient air. (http://ec.europa.eu/environment/air).
- Da Silva, A. R.: Aporte atmosférico do nitrogênio inorgânico e orgânico em área urbana e agrícola no estado do Rio de Janeiro. Doctoral Thesys (2009). Fluminense Federal University, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Henriques, R. V. D. H.: Aporte atmosférico de nitrogênio inorgânico e orgânico nas proximidades de Maceió (AL)—potencial impacto da atividade canavieira. Master Thesis. Fluminense Federal University, Brazil. (2009)Google Scholar
- Hien, T.T., Nam, P.P., Yasuhiro, S., Takayuki, K., Norimichi, T., Hiroshi, B.: Comparison of particles-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their variability causes in the ambient air in Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam and in Osaka, Japan, during 2005–2006. Sci. Total Environ. 382, 70–81 (2007)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Neilson, A. H.: PAHs and related compounds. Springer, Berlin (1998)Google Scholar
- Peters, K.E., Walter, C.C., Moldowan, J.M.: The biomarker guide. Biomarkers and isotopes in the environment and human history. Vol. 1, p. 471. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (2005)Google Scholar
- Rocha, G.O., Lopes, W.A., Pereira, P.A.P., Vasconcelos, P.C., Oliveira, F.S., Carvalho, L.S., Conceição, L.S., de Andrade, J.B.: Quantification and source identification of atmospheric particulate polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and their dry deposition fluxes at three sites in Salvador Basin, Brazil, impacted by mobile and stationary sources. J. Brazil. Chem. Soc. 20, 680–692 (2009)Google Scholar
- Schnelle-Kreis, J., Sklorz, M., Peters, A., Cyris, J., Zimmermmann, R.: Analysis of particle-associated semi-volatile aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbon in urban particulate matter on a daily basis. Atmos. Environ. 39, 7702–7714 (2005)Google Scholar
- Silva, T.F., Azevedo, D.A., Aquino Neto, F.R.: Distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments and water from Guanabara Bay, RJ, Brazil. J. Brazil. Chem. Soc. 18, 628–637 (2007a)Google Scholar
- Vasconcellos, P.C., Artaxo, P.E., Ciccioli, P., Cecinato, A., Brancaleoni, E., Frattoni, M.: Determinação dos hidrocarbonetos saturados e policíclicos aromáticos presentes no material particulado da atmosfera amazônica. Quim. Nova 21, 385–393 (1998)Google Scholar
- Volkman, J.K., Revill, A.T., Murray, A.P.: Applications of biomarkers for identifying sources of natural and pollutant hydrocarbons in aquatic environment. In: Eganhouse, R.P. (ed.) Molecular markers in environmental geochemistry. ACS Symposium Series. American Chemical Society, Washington (1997)Google Scholar