Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry

, Volume 55, Issue 1, pp 13–29 | Cite as

Cloud/Fog Water Chemistry at a High Elevation Site in South Korea



Cloud/fog water samples were collected at Daekwanreung (840 m msl), a ridge site, in South Korea, from March 2002 to September 2003, by using a Caltech type, self fabricated active strand cloud water collector. The pH, electrical conductivity and major ion concentrations were analyzed. The cloud water pH ranged from 3.6 to 6.8 with an average of 5.2, which was close to the atmospheric neutral point. However, the pH calculated from average concentrations of H+ was 4.7, indicating the cloud/fog water was weakly acidified. SO4 2−, NO3 and NH4 + are predominant ions of which average concentrations were 203.1, 128.1, and 211.7 μeq⋅L−1, respectively. Samples were categorized into four groups by applying 48-hour back trajectory analysis, using the HYbrid Single-Particle Largrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model. Chemical compositions for the four cases significantly differed from each other. For air masses transported from the East Sea (group E), sea salt concentrations, including Na+, Cl Mg2+, were relatively high. Principal acidifying pollutants, such as NO3 and nss-SO4 2−, significantly increased in the case of air masses transported from the Northeast Asian continent through North Korea (group N) and air masses from the Seoul metropolitan area (group W). However, the mean pH of group N was the highest while the mean pH of group W was the lowest. This suggests that most NO3 and nss-SO4 2− in cloud/fog water was neutralized by ammonia and calcium compounds under the influence of air masses transported from Northeast Asia. N/S ratio for the group W was significantly higher than those for the other three groups, suggesting nitrogen species transported from the Seoul metropolitan area contributed to acidification of cloud/fog water at Daekwanreung. Principle Component analysis (PCA) was applied to the cloud/fog water data for presenting characteristics in the four different categories.

Key words

acidification back-trajectory analysis cloud/fog water chemistry long-range transport neutralization 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alkawa, M., Hiraki, T., Shoga, M., and Tamaki, M., 2001: Fog and precipitation chemistry at Mt. Rokko in Kobe, April 1997–March 1998, Water, Air and Soil Pollution 130, 1517–1522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, J. B., Baumgardner, R. E., Monen, V. A., and Bower, J. J., 1999: Cloud chemistry in the eastern United States, as sampled from three high‐elevation sites along the Appalachian Mountains, Atmospheric Environment 33, 5105–5114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Deininger, C. K., and Saxena, V. K., 1997: A validation of bacck trajectories of air masses by principal component analysis of ion concentrations in cloud water, Atmospheric Environment 31, 295–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Draxler, R.R. and Rolph, G.D., 2003: HYSPLIT (HYbrid Single‐Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory) Model access via NOAA ARL READY Website (, NOAA Air Resources Laboratory, Silver Spring, MD.
  5. Elias, V. and Buchtele, M. T., 1995: Occult precipitation: Sampling, chemical analysis and process modeling in the Sumava Mts. (Czech Republic) and in the Taunus Mts. (Germany), J. Hydrology 166, 409–430.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Elbert, W., Hoffmann, M. R., Kramer, M., Schmitt, G., and Andereae, M.O., 2000: Control of solute concentrations in cloud and fog water by liquid water content, Atmospheric Environment 34, 1109–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fisak, J., Tesar, M., Rezacova, D., Elias, V., Weignerova, V., and Fottova, D., 2002: Pollutant concentrations in fog and cloud water at selected sites of the Czech Republic, Atmospheric Research 64, 75–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hong, Y. M., Lee, B. K., Park, K. J., Kang, M. H., Jung, Y. R., Lee, D. S., and Kim, M. G., 2002. Atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur containing compounds for three sites of South Korea, Atmospheric Environment 36, 3485–3494.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Igawa, M., Matsumura, K., and Okochi, H., 2002: High Frequency and Large Deposition of acid fog on high elevation forest, Environmental Science and Technology 36, 1–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Kim, M. G., Lim, Y. S. Park, K. J., and Whang, H., 1998: A study on the behavior and deposition of acid precipitation‐Chemical composition of fog water at Chunchon (1996–1997), J. Korean Air Pollution Research Association 14, 491–498.Google Scholar
  11. Korea Ministry of Environment, 1999: Estimation of emissions of acidic precursors and oxidants and acid rain monitoring in Development of technology for monitoring and prediction of acid rain, Korea Ministry of Environment, Seoul, South Korea. pp. 277–298.Google Scholar
  12. Lei, H., Tanner, P. A., Huang, M., Shen, Z., and Wu, Y., 1997: The acidification process under the cloud in southwest China:Observation results and simulation, Atmospheric Environment 31, 851–861.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lee, B. K., Lee, D. S., and Kim, M. G., 2001. Rapid time variations in chemical composition of precipitation in South Korea, Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 130, 427–432.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee, B. K., Hong, S. H., and Lee, D. S., 2000: Chemical composition and precipitation and wet deposition of major ions on the Korean Peninsula, Atmospheric Environment 34, 563–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Lovett, G. M. and Kinsman, J. D., 1990: Atmospheric pollutant deposition to high‐elevation ecosystems, Atmospheric Environment 24A, 2001–2017.Google Scholar
  16. Murano, K., 1991, The pollution level of acid fog, Kougai to Taisaku 27, 229–234.Google Scholar
  17. Schmenauer, R. S., Banic, C. M., and Urquizo, N., 1995: High elevation for and precipitation chemistry in Southern Quebec, Canada, Atmospheric Environment 29, 2235–2252.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Shin, H. J., 1978: Characteristics of fogs at Daekwanreung, J. Korean Meteorological Society 14, 21–28.Google Scholar
  19. Vong, R. J., Sigmon, J. T., and Mueller, S. F., 1991: Cloud water deposition to Appalachian forests, Environmental Science and Technology 25, 1014–1021.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Weathers K. C., Lovett, G. M., and Lichens, G. E., 1995: Cloud deposition to a spruce forest edge, Atmospheric Environment 29, 665–672.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Wrzesinsky, T., and Klemm, O., 2000: Summertime fog chemistry at mountainous site in central Europe, Atmospheric Environment 34, 1487–1496.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Environmental ScienceKangwon National UniversityChunchonSouth Korea
  2. 2.University CollegeYonsei UniversitySeoulSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations