Alternating zonal flows in a two-layer wind-driven ocean
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Alternating zonal flows in an idealized wind-driven double-gyre ocean circulation have been investigated using a two-layer shallow-water eddy-permitting numerical model. While the alternating zonal flows are found almost everywhere in the time-mean zonal velocity field, their meridional scales differ from region to region. In the subpolar western boundary region, where the energetic eddy activity induces quasi two-dimensional turbulence, the alternating zonal flows are generated by the inverse energy cascade and its arrest by Rossby waves, and the meridional scale of the flows corresponds well to the Rhines scale. In the eastern part of the basin, where barotropic basin modes are dominant, the zonal structure is formed through the nonlinear effect of the basin modes and is wider than the Rhines scale. Both effects are likely to form zonal structure between the two regions. These results show that Rossby basin modes become an important factor in the formation of alternating zonal flows in a closed basin in addition to the arrest of the inverse energy cascade by Rossby waves. The wind-driven general circulation associated with eddy activities plays an essential role in determining which mechanism of the alternating zonal flows is possible in each region.
KeywordsZonal flow Rhines scale basin mode wind-driven circulation inverse energy cascade nonlinear rectification
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