Synthesis, Antimicrobial and Cholinesterase Enzymes Inhibitory Activities of Indeno Imidazoles and X-Ray Crystal Structure of 3a,8a-Dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-indeno[1,2-d]imidazole-2,8-dione
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Two indeno imidazoles have been synthesized by the reaction of ninhydrin with diphenylurea and diphenylthiourea. The structures have been determined by spectral analysis. The supramolecular behavior of 3a,8a-Dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-indeno[1,2-d]imidazole-2,8-dione (1) was thoroughly analyzed and reported using X-ray single crystal technique and concepts. The presence of oxygen and nitrogen atoms led to very interesting supramolecular motifs interactions such as nitrogen–oxygen, nitrogen–nitrogen, oxygen–oxygen, nitrogen–hydrogen, and oxygen–hydrogen. 3a,8a-dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-2-thioxo-2,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-1H-indeno[1,2-d]imidazol-8-one 2 showed good antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa, while 3a,8a-dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-indeno[1,2-d]imidazole-2,8-dione 1 only showed antibacterial activity against P. aeruginosa. Both of 1 and 2 were inactive against C. albicans. Derivative 2 demonstrated good cholinesterase enzyme activity unlike derivative 1 which has weak inhibitory activity against these enzymes. Furthermore, 2 was found to be a selective butyrylcholinesterase enzyme inhibitor that has potential use for prevention of further neurodegeneration as well for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer patients.
KeywordsSynthesis Crystal structure 3a,8a-Dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-1,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-indeno[1,2-d]imidazole-2,8-dione 3a,8a-Dihydroxy-1,3-diphenyl-2-thioxo-2,3,3a,8a-tetrahydro-1H-indeno[1,2-d]imidazol-8-one Antimicrobial activity Cholinesterase enzymes inhibitory activity
We would like to acknowledge Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for the Postdoctoral Fellowship to Dr. Raza Murad Ghalib. We would also like to thank Ms Liew Wai Lam, Ms Claira Arul Aruldass and Mr Mani Maran Marimuthu for their contribution in the present study.
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