Drawing from the performance requirement matching perspective of leadership effectiveness (Zaccaro, Green, Dubrow, & Kolze, 2018), the current study investigates how leader proactive personality and team need for approval interactively relate to team commitment and subsequent team performance. We hypothesize that the positive effect of leader proactive personality on team commitment is strengthened when teams have high need for approval. Further, we expect team commitment to transmit the interactive effect between leader proactive personality and team need for approval on team performance. Survey data collected from 80 team leaders and 395 members supported the proposed mediated moderation model. Specifically, in teams with high need for approval, leader proactive personality positively predicted team commitment, which subsequently predicted team performance. In contrast, in teams with low need for approval, leader proactive personality had nonsignificant relationship with team commitment. Overall, the current findings highlight the theoretical importance of understanding leader-team complementarity and underscore the need to recognize team need for approval composition as a context that bounds the influence of leader proactivity. The present study also offers actionable input for team selection and assessment.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
Operationalization in the original Thematic Apperception Test captured a concern to seek and maintain others’ positive appraisal of oneself (Hill, 1987).
The majority of teams (N = 77) showed at least moderate agreement on team commitment; rWG(J) ranged from .57 to 1.00. Removal of the three teams (4%) that failed to come to agreement, as indicated by rWG(J) values below the .30 cutoff (LeBreton & Senter, 2008), did not change the results of hypothesis testing. We retained all 80 teams in the main analysis thanks to a suggestion by an anonymous reviewer.
A MSEM with item parcels as input (results available from the first author) yielded similar support for the study hypotheses.
The concern over common method bias is somewhat mitigated because the mediator, team commitment, was rated by team members.
In an unrelated data collection of employees in China (N = 262), we found a moderate association between proactive personality and dominance, r = .34, p < .001.
Anderson, N., & Thomas, H. D. C. (1996). Workgroup socialization. In M. A. West (Ed.), Handbook of workgroup psychology (pp. 423–450). Chichester, England: Wiley.
Antonakis, J., Day, D. V., & Schyns, B. (2012). Leadership and individual differences: At the cusp of a renaissance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 643–650. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.05.002.
Armeli, S., Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Lynch, P. (1998). Perceived organizational support and police performance: The moderating influence of socioemotional needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 288–297. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.288.
Bandura, A. (2001). Social cognitive theory: An agentic perspective. Annual Review of Psychology, 52, 1–26. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.1.
Bateman, T. S., & Crant, M. J. (1993). The proactive component of organizational behavior: A measure and correlates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 14, 103–118. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.4030140202.
Bauer, D. J., & Curran, P. J. (2005). Probing interactions in fixed and multilevel regression: Inferential and graphical techniques. Multivariate Behavioral Research, 40, 373–400. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327906mbr4003_5.
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The need to belong: Desire for interpersonal attachments as a fundamental human motivation. Psychological Bulletin, 117, 497–529. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.117.3.497.
Becherer, R. C., & Maurer, J. G. (1999). The proactive personality disposition and entrepreneurial behavior among small company presidents. Journal of Small Business Management, 37, 28–36.
Bell, S. T. (2007). Deep-level composition variables as predictors of team performance: A meta-analysis. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 595–615. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.92.3.595.
Bishop, J. W., & Scott, K. D. (2000). An examination of organizational and team commitment in a self-directed team environment. Journal of Applied Psychology, 85, 439–450. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.85.3.439.
Bliese, P. D., Chan, D., & Ployhart, R. E. (2007). Multilevel methods: Future directions in measurement, longitudinal analyses, and nonnormal outcomes. Organizational Research Methods, 10, 551–563. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428107301102.
Brislin, R. W. (1970). Back-translation for cross-cultural research. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 1, 185–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/135910457000100301.
Campbell, J. P. (1990). Modeling the performance prediction problem in industrial and organizational psychology. In M. D. Dunnette & L. M. Hough (Eds.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology: vol. 1 (2nd ed., pp. 687–732). Palo Alto, California: Consulting Psychologists Press.
Chan, D. (1998). Functional relations among constructs in the same content domain at different levels of analysis: A typology of composition models. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 234–246. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.2.234.
Chan, K., Uy, M. A., Chernyshenko, O. S., Ho, M. R., & Sam, Y. (2015). Personality and entrepreneurial, professional and leadership motivations. Personality and Individual Differences, 77, 161–166. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.063.
Chiu, C. Y. C., Owens, B. P., & Tesluk, P. E. (2016). Initiating and utilizing shared leadership in teams: The role of leader humility, team proactive personality, and team performance capability. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 1705–1720. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000159.
Claes, R., Beheydt, C., & Lemmens, B. (2005). Unidimensionality of abbreviated proactive personality scales across cultures. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 54, 476–489. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1464-0597.2005.00221.x.
Cole, M. S., Carter, M. Z., & Zhang, Z. (2013). Leader-team congruence in power distance values and team effectiveness: The mediating role of procedural justice climate. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 962–973. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034269.
Crant, J. M., & Bateman, T. S. (2000). Charismatic leadership viewed from above: The impact of proactive personality. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 63–75. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200002)21:1.3.0.CO;2-J.
Crossley, C. D., Cooper, C. D., & Wernsing, T. S. (2013). Making things happen through challenging goals: Leader proactivity, trust, and business-unit performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 98, 540–549. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031807.
Crowne, D. P. (1991). From response style to motive: A citation-classic commentary on the approval motive. Current Contents, 16, 18.
Crowne, D. P., & Marlowe, D. (1960). A new scale of social desirability independent of psychopathology. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 24, 349–354. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0047358.
Deluga, R. J. (1998). American presidential proactivity, charismatic leadership, and rated performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 9, 265–291. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1048-9843(98)90030-3.
DeRue, D. S., Nahrgang, J. D., Wellman, N. E. D., & Humphrey, S. E. (2011). Trait and behavioral theories of leadership: An integration and meta-analytic test of their relative validity. Personnel Psychology, 64, 7–52. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2010.01201.x.
Dinh, J. E., & Lord, R. G. (2012). Implications of dispositional and process views of traits for individual difference research in leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 651–669. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.03.003.
Drach-Zahavy, A., & Freund, A. (2007). Team effectiveness under stress: A structural contingency approach. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 423–450. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.430.
Dwyer, D. J. (2017). Needy people: Working successfully with control freaks and approval-holics. Seattle, WA: Amazon.
Eby, L. T., & Dobbins, G. H. (1997). Collectivistic orientation in teams: An individual and group-level analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 275–295. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199705)18:3.3.0.CO;2-C.
Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I. L., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.87.3.565.
Ellemers, N., de Gilder, D., & van den Heuvel, H. (1998). Career-oriented versus team-oriented commitment and behavior at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 717–730. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.83.5.717.
Endler, N. S., Minden, H. A., & North, C. (1973). The effects of reinforcement and social approval on conforming behaviour. European Journal of Social Psychology, 3, 297–310. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejsp.2420030308.
Fiedler, F. E. (1964). A contingency model of leadership effectiveness. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 1, pp. 149–190). New York: Academic Press.
Frese, M., & Fay, D. (2001). Personal initiative: An active performance concept for work in the 21st century. Research in Organizational Behavior, 23, 133–187. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0191-3085(01)23005-6.
Fuller, B., Jr., & Marler, L. E. (2009). Change driven by nature: A meta-analytic review of the proactive personality literature. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 329–345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2009.05.008.
George, J. M. (1996). Group affective tone. In M. A. West (Ed.), Handbook of workgroup psychology (pp. 77–93). Chichester, England, Wiley.
Grant, A. M., Gino, F., & Hofmann, D. A. (2011). Reversing the extraverted leadership advantage: The role of employee proactivity. Academy of Management Journal, 54, 528–550. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMJ.2011.61968043.
Hill, C. A. (1987). Affiliation motivation: People who need people… but in different ways. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52, 1008–1118. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.528.
Hill, C. A. (2009). Affiliation motivation. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 410–425). New York: Guilford.
Hu, J., & Liden, R. C. (2011). Antecedents of team potency and team effectiveness: An examination of goal and process clarity and servant leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 96, 851–862. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022465.
Huang, J. L., & Ryan, A. (2011). Beyond personality traits: A study of personality states and situational contingencies in customer service jobs. Personnel Psychology, 64, 451–488. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.2011.01216.x.
Huang, J. L., Ryan, A. M., Zabel, K. L., & Palmer, A. (2014). Personality and adaptive performance at work: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 162–179. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034285.
Ilgen, D. R., Hollenbeck, J. R., Johnson, M., & Jundt, D. (2005). Teams in organizations: From input-process-output models to IMOI models. Annual Review of Psychology, 56, 517–543. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.56.091103.070250.
Johns, G. (2006). The essential impact of context on organizational behavior. Academy of Management Review, 31, 386–408. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.2006.20208687.
Kabins, A. H., Xu, X., Bergman, M. E., Berry, C. M., & Willson, V. L. (2016). A profile of profiles: A meta-analysis of the nomological net of commitment profiles. Journal of Applied Psychology, 101, 881–904. https://doi.org/10.1037/apl0000091.
Kerr, S., & Jermier, J. M. (1978). Substitutes for leadership: Their meaning and measurement. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 22, 375–403. https://doi.org/10.1016/0030-5073(78)90023-5.
Kiesler, D. J. (1983). The 1982 interpersonal circle: A taxonomy for complementarity in human transactions. Psychological Review, 90, 185–214. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.90.3.185.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Ilgen, D. R. (2006). Enhancing the effectiveness of work groups and teams. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 7, 77–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1529-1006.2006.00030.x.
Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In K. J. Klein & S. W. J. Kozlowski (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations (pp. 3–90). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Kukenberger, M. R., Mathieu, J. E., & Ruddy, T. (2015). A cross-level test of empowerment and process influences on members’ informal learning and team commitment. Journal of Management, 41, 987–1016. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206312443559.
Lau, D. C., & Murnighan, J. K. (1998). Demographic diversity and faultlines: The compositional dynamics of organizational groups. Academy of Management Review, 23, 325–340. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMR.1998.533229.
Le Blanc, P. M., & González-Romá, V. (2012). A team level investigation of the relationship between leader–member exchange (LMX) differentiation, and commitment and performance. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 534–544. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.12.006.
Leary, M. R., & Kelly, K. M. (2009). Belonging motivation. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of individual differences in social behavior (pp. 400–409). New York: Guilford.
LeBreton, J. M., & Senter, J. L. (2008). Answers to 20 questions about interrater reliability and interrater agreement. Organizational Research Methods, 11, 815–852. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428106296642.
LePine, J. A. (2003). Team adaptation and postchange performance: Effects of team composition in terms of members’ cognitive ability and personality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 27–39. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.1.27.
Li, W., Fay, D., Frese, M., Harms, P. D., & Gao, X. Y. (2014). Reciprocal relationship between proactive personality and work characteristics: A latent change score approach. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99, 948–965. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0036169.
Li, W., Wang, N., Arvey, R. D., Soong, R., Saw, S. M., & Song, Z. (2015). A mixed blessing? Dual mediating mechanisms in the relationship between dopamine transporter gene dat1 and leadership role occupancy. The Leadership Quarterly, 26, 671–686. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.12.005.
Liden, R. C., Sparrowe, R. T., & Wayne, S. J. (1997). Leader-member exchange theory: The past and potential for the future. In G. R. Ferris (Ed.), Research in personnel and human resources management (Vol. 15, pp. 47–119). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78, 662–674. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.662.
Lin, C., Hung, W., & Chiu, C. (2008). Being good citizens: Understanding a mediating mechanism of organizational commitment and social network ties in OCBs. Journal of Business Ethics, 81, 561–578. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-007-9528-8.
Locke, E. A. (1991). The motivation sequence, the motivation hub, and the motivation core. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50, 288–299. https://doi.org/10.1016/0749-5978(91)90023-M.
Locke, E. A. (1997). The motivation to work: What we know. In M. L. Maehr & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in motivation and achievement (Vol. 10, pp. 375–412). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.
Marlowe, D., & Crowne, D. P. (1961). Social desirability and response to perceived situational demands. Journal of Consulting Psychology, 25, 109–115. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0041627.
Martin, H. J. (1984). A revised measure of approval motivation and its relationship to social desirability. Journal of Personality Assessment, 48, 508–519. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327752jpa4805_10.
Mayer, D. M., Kuenzi, M., Greenbaum, R., Bardes, M., & Salvador, R. (2009). How low does ethical leadership flow? Test of a trickle-down model. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 108, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.obhdp.2008.04.002.
McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1983). Social desirability scales: More substance than style. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 882–888. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.51.6.882.
Meyer, J. P., Becker, T. E., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Employee commitment and motivation: A conceptual analysis and integrative model. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 991–1007. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.89.6.991.
Morgan-Lopez, A., & MacKinnon, D. P. (2006). Demonstration and evaluation of a method for assessing mediated moderation. Behavior Research Methods, 38, 77–87. https://doi.org/10.3758/BF03192752.
Morgeson, F. P., DeRue, D. S., & Karam, E. P. (2010). Leadership in teams: A functional approach to understanding leadership structures and processes. Journal of Management, 36, 5–39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206309347376.
Murray, H. A. (1938). Explorations in personality. New York: Oxford University Press.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (2012). Mplus user’s guide. In Los Angeles: Muthén & Muthén (7th ed.).
Neininger, A., Lehmann-Willenbrock, N., Kauffeld, S., & Henschel, A. (2010). Effects of team and organizational commitment--a longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 76, 567–579. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2010.01.009.
Orford, J. (1994). The interpersonal circumplex: A theory and method for applied psychology. Human Relations, 47, 1347–1375. https://doi.org/10.1177/001872679404701103.
Pearce, C. L., & Herbik, P. A. (2004). Citizenship behavior at the team level of analysis: The effects of team leadership, team commitment, perceived team support, and team size. The Journal of Social Psychology, 144, 293–310. https://doi.org/10.3200/SOCP.144.3.293-310.
Pitariu, A. H., & Ployhart, R. E. (2010). Explaining change: Theorizing and testing dynamic mediated longitudinal relationships. Journal of Management, 36, 405–429. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206308331096.
Porter, C. O. L. H. (2005). Goal orientation: Effects on backing up behavior, performance, efficacy, and commitment in teams. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 811–818. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.811.
Porter, C. O. L. H., Hollenbeck, J. R., Ilgen, D. R., Ellis, A. P., West, B. J., & Moon, H. (2003). Backing up behaviors in teams: The role of personality and legitimacy of need. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 391–403. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.3.391.
Preacher, K. J., Curran, P. J., & Bauer, D. J. (2006). Computational tools for probing interaction effects in multiple linear regression, multilevel modeling, and latent curve analysis. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 31, 437–448. https://doi.org/10.3102/10769986031004437.
Preacher, K. J., Zhang, Z., & Zyphur, M. J. (2011). Alternative methods for assessing mediation in multilevel data: The advantages of multilevel SEM. Structural Equation Modeling, 18, 161–182. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705511.2011.557329.
Preacher, K. J., Zyphur, M. J., & Zhang, Z. (2010). A general multilevel SEM framework for assessing multilevel mediation. Psychological Methods, 15, 209–233. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0020141.
Proell, C. A., Sauer, S., & Rodgers, M. S. (2016). Credit where credit is due: A field survey of the interactive effects of credit expectations and leaders’ credit allocation on employee turnover. Human Resource Management, 55, 341–355.
Rego, A., Vitória, A., Magalhães, A., Ribeiro, N., & Cunha, M. P. (2013). Are authentic leaders associated with more virtuous, committed and potent teams? Leadership Quarterly, 24, 61–79. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2012.08.002.
Riketta, M., & Van Dick, R. (2005). Foci of attachment in organizations: A meta-analytic comparison of the strength and correlates of workgroup versus organizational identification and commitment. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 67, 490–510. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2004.06.001.
Rousseau, V., & Aubé, C. (2014). The reward-performance relationship in work teams: The role of leader behaviors and team commitment. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 17, 645–662. https://doi.org/10.1177/1368430214529465.
Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75, 243–248. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-009-9135-y.
Schneider, B. (1987). The people make the place. Personnel Psychology, 40, 437–453. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1744-6570.1987.tb00609.x.
Schubert, C. (2018). Do I make myself clear? Media training for scientists. Retrieved from http://www.sciencemag.org/features/2018/01/do-i-make-myself-clear-media-training-scientists
Seibert, S. E., Crant, J. M., & Kraimer, M. L. (1999). Proactive personality and career success. Journal of Applied Psychology, 84, 416–427. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.84.3.416.
Selig, J. P., & Preacher, K. J. (2008). Monte Carlo method for assessing mediation: An interactive tool for creating confidence intervals for indirect effects [computer software]. Available from http://quantpsy.org/. Accessed 1 Oct 2018.
Sheldon, K. M., Elliot, A. J., Kim, Y., & Kasser, T. (2001). What is satisfying about satisfying events? Testing 10 candidate psychological needs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80, 325–339. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2065.
Smith, R. E., & Flenning, F. (1971). Need for approval and susceptibility to unintended social influence. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 36, 383–385. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0031104.
Sosik, J. J., & Dinger, S. L. (2007). Relationships between leadership style and vision content: The moderating role of need for social approval, self-monitoring, and need for social power. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 134–153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.01.004.
Stevens, C. K., & Kristof, A. L. (1995). Making the right impression: A field study of applicant impression management during job interviews. Journal of Applied Psychology, 80, 587–606. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.80.5.587.
Strauss, K., & Parker, S. K. (2018). Intervening to enhance proactivity in organizations: Improving the present or changing the future. Journal of Management, 44, 1250–1278. https://doi.org/10.1177/0149206315602531.
Strickland, B. R. (1970). Individual differences in verbal conditioning, extinction, and awareness. Journal of Personality, 38, 364–378. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.1970.tb00015.x.
Taggar, S., & Ellis, R. (2007). The role of leaders in shaping formal team norms. The Leadership Quarterly, 18, 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2007.01.002.
Thomas, J. P., Whitman, D. S., & Viswesvaran, C. (2010). Employee proactivity in organizations: A comparative meta-analysis of emergent proactive constructs. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 83, 275–300. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317910X502359.
Thompson, S. C. (1978). Detection of social cues: A signal detection theory analysis. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 4, 452–455. https://doi.org/10.1177/014616727800400319.
Thompson, J. A. (2005). Proactive personality and job performance: A social capital perspective. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 1011–1017. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.90.5.1011.
Torres, M. ( 2018). Study: Need for peer approval is the biggest motivator at work. Retrieved from: https://www.theladders.com/career-advice/study-need-for-peer-approval-is-the-biggest-motivator-at-work. Accessed 1 Feb 2018.
Tuncdogan, A., Acar, O. A., & Stam, D. (2017). Individual differences as antecedents of leader behavior: Towards an understanding of multi-level outcomes. The Leadership Quarterly, 28, 40–64.
Twenge, J. M., & Campbell, S. M. (2008). Generational differences in psychological traits and their impact on the workplace. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 862–877. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683940810904367.
Twenge, J. M., & Im, C. (2007). Changes in the need for social approval, 1958-2001. Journal of Research in Personality, 41, 171–189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2006.03.006.
Vandenberghe, C., Bentein, K., & Stinglhamber, F. (2004). Affective commitment to the organization, supervisor, and work group: Antecedents and outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 64, 47–71. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0001-8791(03)00029-0.
Wong, S. I., & Kuvaas, B. (2018). The empowerment expectation–perception gap: An examination of three alternative models. Human Resource Management Journal, 28, 272–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12177.
Yang, J., Gong, Y., & Huo, Y. (2011). Proactive personality, social capital, helping, and turnover intentions. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 26, 739–760. https://doi.org/10.1108/02683941111181806.
Zaccaro, S. J., Green, J. P., Dubrow, S., & Kolze, M. (2018). Leader individual differences, situational parameters, and leadership outcomes: A comprehensive review and integration. The Leadership Quarterly, 29, 2–43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2017.10.003.
Zhang, Z., Wang, M., & Shi, J. (2012). Leader-follower congruence in proactive personality and work outcomes: The mediating role of leader-member exchange. Academy of Management Journal, 55, 111–130. https://doi.org/10.5465/amj.2009.0865.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Huang, J.L., Liao, C., Li, Y. et al. Just What You Need: the Complementary Effect of Leader Proactive Personality and Team Need for Approval. J Bus Psychol 35, 421–434 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10869-019-09635-w
- Proactive personality
- Leader-team complementarity
- Need for approval
- Team commitment
- Team performance