Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 30, Issue 2, pp 325–343 | Cite as

Internet-Based, Unproctored Assessments on Mobile and Non-Mobile Devices: Usage, Measurement Equivalence, and Outcomes

  • A. James Illingworth
  • Neil A. Morelli
  • John C. Scott
  • Scott L. Boyd



The purpose of this study was to determine the usage rates, measurement equivalence, and potential outcome differences between mobile and non-mobile device-based deliveries of an unproctored, non-cognitive assessment.


This study utilized a quasi-experimental design based on archival data obtained from applicants who completed a non-cognitive assessment on a mobile (n = 7,743; e.g., smartphones, tablet computers) or non-mobile (n = 929,341; e.g., desktop computers) device as part of an operational, high-stakes pre-employment selection process.


One percent of applicants used mobile devices to complete the assessment. Multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis indicated the assessment was equivalent across mobile and non-mobile devices at the configural, metric, scalar, and latent mean levels. A comparison of observed score means using one-way and factorial ANOVAs demonstrated that the use of mobile and non-mobile devices did not produce any practically significant score differences on the assessment across devices or applicant demographic subgroups.


Industry and technological trends suggest mobile device usage will only increase. Thus, demonstrating that mobile device functionality and hardware characteristics do not change the psychometric functioning or applicant outcomes for a non-cognitive, text-based selection assessment is critical to talent assessment.


This study provides the first empirical examination of the usage of mobile devices to complete talent assessments and their impact on assessment properties and applicant outcomes, and serves as the foundation for future research and application of this growing technological trend in pre-employment assessment.


Measurement equivalence Measurement invariance Mobile devices Selection and assessment Talent assessment and selection Internet-based testing Unproctored testing Technology-enhanced assessment Non-cognitive assessment 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. James Illingworth
    • 1
  • Neil A. Morelli
    • 1
  • John C. Scott
    • 2
  • Scott L. Boyd
    • 3
  1. 1.APTMetrics, IncDecaturUSA
  2. 2.APTMetrics, IncDarienUSA
  3. 3.Best Buy Co., IncRichfieldUSA

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