Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 27, Issue 2, pp 123–147 | Cite as

Advancing Organizational Support Theory into the Twenty-First Century World of Work

  • Benjamin E. Baran
  • Linda Rhoades Shanock
  • Lindsay R. Miller



This review focuses and aids the development of organizational support theory, which explains relationships between employers and employees based on social exchange. Many studies have explored the theory’s central construct, perceived organizational support (POS), or the degree to which employees believe their work organization values their contributions and cares about their well-being. Since the last review of POS literature in 2000, the occupational landscape has shifted, increasing nontraditional work relationships and the importance of managing an international workforce while considering influences on employee well-being. This review discusses how the recent POS research reflects these trends.


This review focused on how themes in the POS research since 2000 have enhanced organizational support theory as relevant to the twenty-first century world of work.


Four important theoretical themes have developed since 2000 that enhance organizational support theory: considerations of employee well-being, nontraditional workers, international and cross-cultural issues, and developments tied to the use of multilevel modeling.


Giving both researchers and practitioners a synthesized view of the current status of POS research, this review serves as a springboard for new developments. It also integrates the multitude of recent studies into organizational support theory, focusing theoretical progress.


This is the first review and theoretical integration of the POS literature since 2002. It is a valuable resource for all interested in the field, with theoretical insights, useful tables, explanatory figures, and references.


Organizational support theory Social exchange Perceived organizational support Employee well-being Nontraditional workers International and cross-cultural issues Theoretical development 


  1. Addae, H. M., Parboteeah, K. P., & Davis, E. E. (2006). Organizational commitment and intentions to quit: An examination of the moderating effects of psychological contract breach in Trinidad and Tobago. International Journal of Organizational Analysis, 14, 225–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adebayo, D. O. (2005). Ethical attitudes and prosocial behaviour in the Nigeria police—Moderator effects of perceived organizational support and public recognition. Policing-an International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 28, 684–705.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Albrecht, S., & Travaglione, A. (2003). Trust in public-sector senior management. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 76–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alder, G. S., Noel, T. W., & Ambrose, M. L. (2006). Clarifying the effects of Internet monitoring on job attitudes: The mediating role of employee trust. Information & Management, 43, 894–903.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Allen, D. G. (2006). Do organizational socialization tactics influence newcomer embeddedness and turnover? Journal of Management, 32, 237–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Allen, N. J., & Meyer, J. P. (1996). Affective, continuance, and normative commitment to the organization: An examination of construct validity. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 49, 252–276.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Anand, S., Vidyarthi, P. R., Liden, R. C., & Rousseau, D. M. (2010). Good citizens in poor-quality relationships: Idiosyncratic deals as a substituted for relationship quality. Academy of Management Journal, 53, 970–988.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ang, S., & Slaughter, S. A. (2001). Work outcomes and job design for contract versus permanent information systems professionals on software development teams. Mis Quarterly, 25, 321–350.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Armeli, S., Eisenberger, R., Fasolo, P., & Lynch, P. (1998). Perceived organizational support and police performance: The moderating influence of socioemotional needs. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83, 288–297.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Armstrong-Stassen, M. (2004). The influence of prior commitment on the reactions of layoff survivors to organizational downsizing. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 9, 46–60.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Aryee, S., & Chay, Y. W. (2001). Workplace justice, citizenship behavior, and turnover intentions in a union context: Examining the mediating role of perceived union support and union instrumentality. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 154–160.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Aselage, J., & Eisenberger, R. (2003). Perceived organizational support and psychological contracts: A theoretical integration. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 491–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Asgari, A., Silong, A. D., Ahmad, A., & Abu Samah, B. (2008). The relationship between leader-member exchange, organizational inflexibility, perceived organizational support, interactional justice and organizational citizenship behaviour. African Journal of Business Management, 2, 138–145.Google Scholar
  14. Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 149–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Aubé, C., Rousseau, V., & Morin, E. (2007). Perceived organizational support and organizational commitment: The moderating effect of locus of control and work autonomy. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 479–495.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Babalola, S. S. (2010). The impact of length of unemployment and perceived organisational support on employees’ socio-emotional needs. IFE Psychologia: An International Journal, 18, 119–136.Google Scholar
  17. Bal, P. M., Chiaburu, D. S., & Jansen, P. G. W. (2010). Psychological contract breach and work performance Is social exchange a buffer or an intensifier? Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 252–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ballout, H. I. (2007). Career success: The effects of human capital, person-environment fit and organizational support. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22, 741–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Barkema, H. G., Baum, J. A. C., & Mannix, E. A. (2002). Management challenges in a new time. Academy of Management Journal, 45, 916–930.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Bartol, K. M., Liu, W., Zeng, X. Q., & Wu, K. L. (2009). Social exchange and knowledge sharing among knowledge workers: The moderating role of perceived job security. Management and Organization Review, 5, 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Becker, T. E., & Kernan, M. C. (2003). Matching commitment to supervisors and organizations to in-role and extra-role performance. Human Performance, 16, 327–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Behson, S. (2002). Which dominates? The relative importance of work-family organizational support and general organizational context on employee outcomes. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 61, 53–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Bell, S. J., & Menguc, B. (2002). The employee-organization relationship, organizational citizenship behaviors, and superior service quality. Journal of Retailing, 78, 131–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Bell, S. J., Menguc, B., & Stefani, S. L. (2004). When customers disappoint: A model of relational internal marketing and customer complaints. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 32, 112–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Bhanthumnavin, D. (2003). Perceived social support from supervisor and group members’ psychological and situational characteristics as predictors of subordinate performance in Thai work units. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 14, 79–97.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Biron, M. (2010). Negative reciprocity and the association between perceived organizational ethical values and organizational deviance. Human Relations, 63, 875–897.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Bishop, J., Goldsby, M., & Neck, C. (2002). Who goes? Who cares? Who stays? Who wants to? The role of contingent workers and corporate layoff practices. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 17, 298–315.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Bishop, J. W., Scott, K. D., & Burroughs, S. M. (2000). Support, commitment, and employee outcomes in a team environment. Journal of Management, 26, 1113–1132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Bishop, J. W., Scott, K. D., Goldsby, M. G., & Cropanzano, R. (2005). A construct validity study of commitment and perceived support variables—a multifoci approach across different team environments. Group & Organization Management, 30, 153–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Blau, P. M. (1964). Exchange and power in social life. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  31. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2007). Volunteering for charity: Pride, respect, and the commitment of volunteers. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 771–785.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2008a). Pride and respect in volunteers’ organizational commitment. European Journal of Social Psychology, 38, 159–172.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Boezeman, E. J., & Ellemers, N. (2008b). Volunteer recruitment: The role of organizational support and anticipated respect in non-volunteers’ attraction to charitable volunteer organizations. Journal of Applied Psychology, 93, 1013–1026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Bradley, J., & Cartwright, S. (2002). Social support, job stress, health, and job satisfaction among nurses in the United Kingdom. International Journal of Stress Management, 9, 163–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Brandes, P., Dharwadkar, R., & Wheatley, K. (2004). Social exchanges within organizations and work outcomes—the importance of local and global relationships. Group & Organization Management, 29, 276–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Brown, D. J., Ferris, D. L., Heller, D., & Keeping, L. M. (2007). Antecedents and consequences of the frequency of upward and downward social comparisons at work. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 102, 59–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Buch, R., Kuvaas, B., & Dysvik, A. (2010). Dual support in contract workers’ triangular employment relationships. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 77, 93–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Burke, R. J., & Greenglass, E. R. (2001). Hospital restructuring and nursing staff well-being: The role of perceived hospital and union support. Anxiety Stress and Coping, 14, 93–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Burke, R. J., & Ng, E. (2006). The changing nature of work and organizations: Implications for human resource management. Human Resource Management Review, 16, 86–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Byrne, Z., & Hochwarter, W. (2006). I get by with a little help from my friends: The interaction of chronic pain and organizational support on performance. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 215–227.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Byrne, Z., & Hochwarter, W. (2008). Perceived organizational support and performance: Relationships across levels of organizational cynicism. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 54–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Byrne, Z., Kacmar, C., Stoner, J., & Hochwarter, W. A. (2005). The relationship between perceptions of politics and depressed mood at work: Unique moderators across three levels. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 10, 330–343.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Camerman, J., Cropanzano, R., & Vandenberghe, C. (2007). The benefits of justice for temporary workers. Group and Organization Management, 32, 176–207.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Campbell, D. J., & Campbell, K. M. (2003). Global versus facet predictors of intention to quit: Differences in a sample of male and female Singaporean managers and non-managers. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 14, 1152–1177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Capon, J., Chernyshenko, O. S., & Stark, S. (2007). Applicability of civilian retention theory in the New Zealand military. New Zealand Journal of Psychology, 36, 50–56.Google Scholar
  46. Cardona, P., Lawrence, B. S., & Bentler, P. M. (2004). The influence of social and work exchange relationships on organizational citizenship behavior. Group & Organization Management, 29, 219–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Carmeli, A., & Zisu, M. (2009). The relational underpinnings of quality internal auditing in medical clinics in Israel. Social Science and Medicine, 68, 894–902.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Casper, W., & Buffardi, L. (2004). Work-life benefits and job pursuit intentions: The role of anticipated organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 391–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Casper, W., & Harris, C. (2008). Work-life benefits and organizational attachment: Self-interest utility and signaling theory models. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 72, 95–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Casper, W., Martin, J., Buffardi, L., & Erdwins, C. (2002). Work-family conflict, perceived organizational support, and organizational commitment among employed mothers. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 7, 99–108.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Casper, W., Weltman, D., & Kwesiga, E. (2007). Beyond family-friendly: The construct and measurement of singles-friendly work culture. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 478–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Chan, D. (2001). Method effects of positive affectivity, negative affectivity, and impression management in self-reports of work attitudes. Human Performance, 14, 77–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Chen, Z., Aryee, S., & Lee, C. (2005). Test of a mediation model of perceived organizational support. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 66, 457–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Chiu, C., Lin, C., Tsai, Y., & Hsiao, C. (2005). Modeling turnover intentions and their antecedents using the locus of control as a moderator: A case of customer service employees. Human Resource Development Quarterly, 16, 481–499.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Choi, J. (2006). Multilevel and cross-level effects of workplace attitudes and group member relations on interpersonal helping behavior. Human Performance, 19, 383–402.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Chuang, C. H., & Liao, H. (2010). Strategic human resource management in service context: Taking care of business by taking care of employees and customers. Personnel Psychology, 63, 153–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Cinite, I., Duxbury, L. E., & Higgins, C. (2009). Measurement of perceived organizational readiness for change in the public sector. British Journal of Management, 20, 265–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Cohen, S., & Wills, T. A. (1985). Stress, social support, and the buffering hypothesis. Psychology Bulletin, 98, 310–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Cole, M. S., Bruch, H., & Vogel, B. (2006). Emotion as mediators of the relations between perceived supervisor support and psychological hardiness on employee cynicism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 463–484.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Connell, J., Ferres, N., & Travaglione, T. (2003). Engendering trust in manager-subordinate relationships: Predictors and outcomes. Personnel Review, 32, 569–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Connelly, C., Gallagher, D., & Gilley, K. (2007). Organizational and client commitment among contracted employees: A replication and extension with temporary workers. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 70, 326–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Coyle-Shapiro, J. A., & Morrow, P. (2006). Organizational and client commitment among contracted employees. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 68, 416–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Coyle-Shapiro, J. A., Morrow, P., & Kessler, I. (2006). Serving two organizations: Exploring the employment relationship of contracted employees. Human Resource Management, 45, 561–583.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Credo, K. R., Armenakis, A. A., Feild, H. S., & Young, R. L. (2010). Organizational ethics, leader-member exchange, and organizational support: Relationships with workplace safety. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 17, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Cross, B., & Travaglione, A. (2004). The times they are a-changing: who will stay and who will go in a downsizing organization? Personnel Review, 33, 275–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Currie, P., & Dollery, B. (2006). Organizational commitment and perceived organizational support in the NSW police. Policing-an International Journal of Police Strategies & Management, 29, 741–756.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Darolia, C. R., Kumari, P., & Darolia, S. (2010). Perceived organizational support, work motivation, and organizational commitment as determinants of job performance. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology, 36, 69–78.Google Scholar
  68. Dawley, D., Houghton, J. D., & Bucklew, N. S. (2010). Perceived organizational support and turnover intention: The mediating effects of personal sacrifice and job fit. The Journal of Social Psychology, 150, 238–257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. DeConinck, J. B. (2010). The effect of organizational justice, perceived organizational support, and perceived supervisor support on marketing employees’ level of trust. Journal of Business Research, 63, 1349–1355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. DeJoy, D. M., Della, L. J., Vandenberg, R. J., & Wilson, M. G. (2010). Making work safer: Testing a model of social exchange and safety management. Journal of Safety Research, 41, 163–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. DeJoy, D. M., Schaffer, B. S., Wilson, M. G., Vandenberg, R. J., & Butts, M. M. (2004). Creating safer workplaces: assessing the determinants and role of safety climate. Journal of Safety Research, 35, 81–90.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Djurkovic, N., McCormack, D., & Casimir, G. (2008). Workplace bullying and intention to leave: The moderating effect of perceived organisational support. Human Resource Management Journal, 18, 405–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Dobreva-Martinova, T., Villeneuve, M., Strickland, L., & Matheson, K. (2002). Occupational role stress in the Canadian forces: Its association with individual and organizational well-being. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 34, 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Donsbach, J. S., & Shanock, L. R. (2008). Relationships between supervisor turnover intention and subordinate perceived organisational support and positive mood. Psychologica Belgica, 48, 243–259.Google Scholar
  75. Dulac, T., Coyle-Shapiro, J. A. M., Henderson, D. J., & Wayne, S. J. (2008). Not all responses to breach are the same: The interconnection of social exchange and psychological contract processes in organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 51, 1079–1098.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Dupré, K., & Day, A. (2007). The effects of supportive management and job quality on the turnover intentions and health of military personnel. Human Resource Management, 46, 185–201.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Edwards, M. R. (2009). HR, perceived organisational support and organisational identification: An analysis after organisational formation. Human Resource Management Journal, 19, 91–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Edwards, M. R., & Peccei, R. (2010). Perceived organizational support, organizational identification, and employee outcomes testing a simultaneous multifoci model. Journal of Personnel Psychology, 9, 17–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ehigie, B., & Otukoya, O. (2005). Antecedents of organizational citizenship behaviour in a government-owned enterprise in Nigeria. European Journal of Work and Organization Psychology, 14, 389–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Eisenberger, R., Armeli, S., Rexwinkel, B., Lynch, P., & Rhoades, L. (2001). Reciprocation of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 42–51.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 500–507.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Eisenberger, R., Stinglhamber, F., Vandenberghe, C., Sucharski, I., & Rhoades, L. (2002). Perceived supervisor support: Contributions to perceived organizational support and employee retention. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 565–573.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. El Akremi, A., Vandenberghe, C., & Camerman, J. (2010). The role of justice and social exchange relationships in workplace deviance: Test of a mediated model. Human Relations, 63, 1687–1717.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Erdogan, B., & Enders, J. (2007). Support from the top: Supervisors’ perceived organizational support as a moderator of leader-member exchange to satisfaction and performance relationships. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 321–330.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Erdogan, B., Kraimer, M., & Liden, R. (2004). Work value congruence and intrinsic career success: The compensatory roles of leader-member exchange and perceived organizational support. Personnel Psychology, 57, 305–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Erturk, A. (2010). Exploring predictors of organizational identification: Moderating role of trust on the associations between empowerment, organizational support, and identification. European Journal of Work and Organizational Psychology, 19, 409–441.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Farh, J., Hackett, R., & Liang, J. (2007). Individual-level cultural values as moderators of perceived organizational support–employee outcome relationships in China: Comparing the effects of power distance and traditionality. Academy of Management Journal, 50, 715–729.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Farrell, M. A., & Oczkowski, E. (2009). Service worker customer orientation, organisation/job fit and perceived organisational support. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 17, 149–167.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Feng, W. C., & Angeline, T. (2010). Turnover intention and job hopping behaviour of music teachers in Malaysia. African Journal of Business Management, 4, 425–434.Google Scholar
  90. Ferres, N., Connell, J., & Travaglione, A. (2005). The effect of future redeployment on organizational trust. Strategic Change, 14, 77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Finkel, S. E. (1995). Causal analysis with panel data. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  92. Fuller, J., Barnett, T., Hester, K., & Relyea, C. (2003). A social identity perspective on the relationship between perceived organizational support and organizational commitment. Journal of Social Psychology, 143, 789–791.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Fuller, J. B., & Hester, K. (2001). A closer look at the relationship between justice perceptions and union participation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 1096–1105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Gakovic, A., & Tetrick, L. (2003). Perceived organizational support and work status: A comparison of the employment relationships of part-time and full-time employees attending university classes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 649–666.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Gelfand, M., Nishii, J. L. H., & Raver, L. (2006). On the nature and importance of cultural tightness-looseness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 1225–1244.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Goeddeke, F. X., Jr., & Kammeyer-Mueller, J. D. (2010). Perceived support in a dual organizational environment: Union participation in a university setting. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31, 65–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Guerrero, S., & Herrbach, O. (2008). The affective underpinnings of psychological contract fulfillment. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 4–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Guerrero, S., & Herrbach, O. (2009). Manager organizational commitment: A question of support or image? International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 1536–1553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Gyekye, S. A., & Salminen, S. (2007). Workplace safety perceptions and perceived organizational support: Do supportive perceptions influence safety perceptions? International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics, 13, 189–200.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Gyekye, S. A., & Salminen, S. (2009). Perceived organizational support: An African perspective. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 39, 2651–2668.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Haar, J. M. (2006). Challenge and hindrance stressors in New Zealand: Exploring social exchange theory outcomes. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 17, 1942–1950.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Haines, V., Merrheim, G., & Roy, M. (2001). Understanding reactions to safety incentives. Journal of Safety Research, 32, 17–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Harlos, K. P., & Axelrod, L. J. (2005). Investigating hospital administrators’ experience of workplace mistreatment. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science, 37, 262–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Highhouse, S., Thornbury, E. E., & Little, I. S. (2007). Social-identity functions of attraction to organizations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 103, 134–146.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Hochwarter, W. A., Witt, L. A., Treadway, D. C., & Ferris, G. R. (2006). The interaction of social skill and organizational support on job performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 482–489.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Huang, J. H., Jin, B. H., & Yang, C. (2004). Satisfaction with business-to-employee benefit systems and organizational citizenship behavior—an examination of gender differences. International Journal of Manpower, 25, 195–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Huffman, A. H., Culbertson, S. S., & Castro, C. A. (2008). Family-friendly environments and us army soldier performance and work outcomes. Military Psychology, 20, 253–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Hui, C., Lee, C., & Rousseau, D. (2004). Employment relationships in China: Do workers relate to the organization or to people? Organization Science, 15, 232–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Hui, C., Wong, A., & Tjosvold, D. (2007). Turnover intention and performance in China: The role of positive affectivity, Chinese values, perceived organizational support and constructive controversy. Journal of Occupational and Organization Psychology, 80, 735–751.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Humborstad, S. I. W., Humborstad, B., Whitfield, R., & Perry, C. (2008). Implementation of empowerment in Chinese high power-distance organizations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 19, 1349–1364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Hung, H., & Wong, Y. (2007). The relationship between employer endorsement of continuing education and training and work and study performance: A Hong Kong case study. International Journal of Training and Development, 11, 295–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ilies, R., Dimotakis, N., & De Pater, I. E. (2010). Psychological and physiological reactions to high workloads: Implications for well-being. Personnel Psychology, 63, 407–436.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Jain, A., & Sinha, A. (2005). General health in organizations: Relative relevance of emotional intelligence, trust, and organizational support. International Journal of Stress Management, 12, 257–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Jawahar, I., Stone, T., & Kisamore, J. (2007). Role conflict and burnout: The direct and moderating effects of political skill and perceived organizational support on burnout dimensions. International Journal of Stress Management, 14, 142–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Kalleberg, A. L. (2000). Nonstandard employment relations: Part-time, temporary and contract work. Annual Review of Sociology, 26, 341–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Kang, B., Twigg, N. W., & Hertzman, J. (2010). An examination of social support and social identity factors and their relationship to certified chefs’ burnout. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 29, 168–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Kath, L. M., Marks, K. M., & Ranney, J. (2010). Safety climate dimensions, leader–member exchange, and organizational support as predictors of upward safety communication in a sample of rail industry workers. Safety Science, 48, 643–650.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Kiewitz, C., Restubog, S. L. D., Zagenczyk, T., & Hochwarter, W. (2009). The interactive effects of psychological contract breach and organizational politics on perceived organizational support: Evidence from two longitudinal studies. Journal of Management Studies, 46, 806–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Kim, H. J., Tavitiyaman, P., & Kim, W. G. (2009). The effect of management commitment to service on employee service behaviors: The mediating role of job satisfaction. Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 33, 369–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Kinnunen, U., Feldt, T., & Mäkikangas, A. (2008). Testing the effort-reward imbalance model among Finnish managers: The role of perceived organizational support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 13, 114–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Knight, W. E., & Leimer, C. L. (2010). Will IR staff stick? An exploration of institutional researchers’ intention to remain in or leave their jobs. Research in Higher Education, 51, 109–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Konrad, A. M., Cannings, K., & Goldberg, C. B. (2010). Asymmetrical demography effects on psychological climate for gender diversity: Differential effects of leader gender and work unit gender composition among Swedish doctors. Human Relations, 63, 1661–1685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Kozlowski, S. W. J., & Klein, K. J. (2000). A multilevel approach to theory and research in organizations: Contextual, temporal, and emergent processes. In S. W. J. Kozlowski & K. J. Klein (Eds.), Multilevel theory, research, and methods in organizations: Foundations, extensions, and new directions (pp. 3–90). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  124. Kraimer, M. L., & Wayne, S. J. (2004). An examination of perceived organizational support as a multidimensional construct in the context of an expatriate assignment. Journal of Management, 30, 209–237.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Kraimer, M., Wayne, S., & Jaworski, R. (2001). Sources of support and expatriate performance: The mediating role of expatriate adjustment. Personnel Psychology, 54, 71–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Kuvaas, B. (2008). An exploration of how the employee-organization relationship affects the linkage between perception of developmental human resource practices and employee outcomes. Journal of Management Studies, 45, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Ladebo, O. J. (2009). Emotional exhaustion and strain reactions: Perceived organisational support as a moderator. South African Journal of Psychology, 39, 46–58.Google Scholar
  128. Lapalme, M. E., Tremblay, M., & Simard, G. (2009). The relationship between career plateauing, employee commitment and psychological distress: The role of organizational and supervisor support. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 1132–1145.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Laschinger, H. K. S., Purdy, N., Cho, J., & Almost, J. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of nurse managers’ perceptions of organizational support. Nursing Economics, 24, 20–29.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. Lavelle, J. J., McMahan, G. C., & Harris, C. M. (2009). Fairness in human resource management, social exchange relationships, and citizenship behavior: Testing linkages of the target similarity model among nurses in the United States. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 20, 2419–2434.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Lee, J., & Peccei, R. (2007). Perceived organizational support and affective commitment: The mediating role of organization-based self-esteem in the context of job insecurity. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 28, 661–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Leveson, L., Joiner, T. A., & Bakalis, S. (2009). Managing cultural diversity and perceived organizational support: Evidence from Australia. International Journal of Manpower, 30, 377–392.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Leveson, L., Joiner, T., & Bakalis, S. (2010). Dual commitment in the Australian construction industry. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 48, 302–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Liao, H., Joshi, A., & Chuang, A. (2004). Sticking out like a sore thumb: Employee dissimilarity and deviance at work. Personnel Psychology, 57, 969–1000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Liden, R., Wayne, S., Kraimer, M., & Sparrowe, R. (2003). The dual commitments of contingent workers: An examination of contingents’ commitment to the agency and the organization. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 609–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Lilly, J. D., & Virick, M. (2006). The effect of personality on perceptions of justice. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 438–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Lin, C. (2006). Gender differs: Modelling knowledge sharing from a perspective of social network ties. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 9, 236–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Liu, Y. (2009). Perceived organizational support and expatriate organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of affective commitment towards the parent company. Personnel Review, 38, 307–319.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. Liu, Y., & Ipe, M. (2010). The impact of organizational and leader-member support on expatriate commitment. The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 1035–1048.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Loi, R., & Ngo, H. Y. (2010). Mobility norms, risk aversion, and career satisfaction of Chinese employees. Asia Pacific Journal of Management, 27, 237–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Loi, R., Ngo, H. Y., & Foley, S. (2006). Linking employees’ justice perceptions to organizational commitment and intention to leave: The mediating role of perceived organizational support. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 79, 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Macik-Frey, M., Quick, J. C., & Nelson, D. L. (2007). Advances in occupational health: From a stressful beginning to a positive future. Journal of Management, 33, 809–840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Marjanovic, Z., Greenglass, E., & Coffey, S. (2007). The relevance of psychosocial variables and working conditions in predicting nurses’ coping strategies during the SARS crisis: An online questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 44, 991–998.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Mearns, K., & Reader, J. T. (2008). Organizational support and safety outcomes: An un-investigated relationship? Safety Science, 46, 388–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Mendelson, M. B., Catano, V. M., & Kelloway, K. (2000). The role of stress and social support in Sick Building Syndrome. Work and Stress, 14, 137–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Moideenkutty, U., Blau, G., Kumar, R., & Nalakath, A. (2001). Perceived organisational support as a mediator of the relationship of perceived situational factors to affective organisational commitment. Applied Psychology: An International Review, 50, 615–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Moore, T. W., & Casper, W. J. (2006). An examination of proxy measures of workplace spirituality: A profile model of multidimensional constructs. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 12, 109–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Moynihan, D. P., & Pandey, S. K. (2008). The ties that bind: Social networks, person-organization value fit, and turnover intention. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 18, 205–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Muse, L., Harris, S. G., Giles, W. E., & Feild, H. S. (2008). Work-life benefits and positive organizational behavior: Is there a connection? Journal of Organizational Behavior, 29, 171–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. (2004). Work-RISQS injury estimates. Accessed August 21, 2009.
  151. Ng, T. W. H., & Sorensen, K. L. (2008). Toward a further understanding of the relationships between perceptions of support and work attitudes: A meta-analysis. Group & Organization Management, 33, 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. O’Donohue, W., Donohue, R., & Grimmer, M. (2007). Research into the psychological contract: Two Australian perspectives. Human Resource Development International, 10, 301–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. O’Neill, O. A., Vandenberg, R. J., Dejoy, D. M., & Wilson, M. G. (2009). Exploring relationships among anger, perceived organizational support, and workplace outcomes. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 14, 318–333.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Panaccio, A., & Vandenberghe, C. (2009). Perceived organizational support, organizational commitment and psychological well-being: A longitudinal study. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 75, 224–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Parzefall, M. R., & Salin, D. M. (2010). Perceptions of and reactions to workplace bullying: A social exchange perspective. Human Relations, 63, 761–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Patrick, A., & Laschinger, H. K. S. (2006). The effect of structural empowerment and perceived organizational support on middle level nurse managers’ role satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Management, 14, 13–22.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Pawar, B. S. (2009). Some of the recent organizational behavior concepts as precursors to workplace spirituality. Journal of Business Ethics, 88, 245–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Pazy, A., & Ganzach, Y. (2009). Pay contingency and the effects of perceived organizational and supervisor support on performance and commitment. Journal of Management, 35, 1007–1025.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Piercy, N. F., Cravens, D. W., Lane, N., & Vorhies, D. W. (2006). Driving organizational citizenship behaviors and salesperson in-role behavior performance: The role of management control and perceived organizational support. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 34, 244–262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Pundt, A., Martins, E., & Nerdinger, F. W. (2010). Innovative Behavior and the Reciprocal Exchange between Employees and Organizations. Zeitschrift Fur Personalforschung, 24, 173–193.Google Scholar
  161. Quenneville, N., Bentein, K., & Simard, G. (2010). From Organizational Values to Mobilization of Human Resources. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences-Revue Canadienne Des Sciences De L Administration, 27, 122–135.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Rabl, T. (2010). Age, discrimination, and achievement motives A study of German employees. Personnel Review, 39, 448–467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Redman, T., & Snape, E. (2005). Exchange ideology and member-union relationships: An evaluation of moderation effects. Journal of Applied Psychology, 90, 765–773.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Reinardy, S. (2007). Satisfaction vs sacrifice: Sports editors assess the influences of life issues on job satisfaction. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 84, 105–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Rhoades, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2002). Perceived organizational support: A review of the literature. Journal of Applied Psychology, 87, 698–714.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Rhoades, L., Eisenberger, R., & Armeli, S. (2001). Affective commitment to the organization: The contribution of perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 825–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Richardson, H. A., Yang, J. X., Vandenberg, R. J., DeJoy, D. M., & Wilson, M. G. (2008). Perceived organizational support’s role in stressor-strain relationships. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 789–810.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Saks, A. (2006). Antecedents and consequences of employee engagement. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21, 600–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Sawang, S. (2010). Moderation or Mediation? An examination of the role perceived managerial support has on job satisfaction and psychological strain. Current Psychology, 29, 247–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Self, D. R., Holt, D. T., & Schaninger, W. S., Jr. (2005). Work-group and organizational support: A test of distinct dimensions. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 78, 133–140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Shaffer, M., Harrison, D., Gilley, K., & Luk, D. (2001). Struggling for balance amid turbulence on international assignments: Work-family conflict, support and commitment. Journal of Management, 27, 99–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Shanock, L., & Eisenberger, R. (2006). When supervisors feel supported: Relationships with subordinates’ perceived supervisor support, perceived organizational support, and performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 689–695.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Shelton, P. M., Waite, A. M., & Makela, C. J. (2010). Highly effective teams: A relational analysis of group potency and perceived organizational support. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 12, 93–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Shore, L. M., & Shore, T. H. (1995). Perceived organizational support and organizational justice. In R. Cropanzano & K. M. Kacmar (Eds.), Organizational politics, justice, and support: Managing social climate at work (pp. 149–164). Westport, CT: Quorum Press.Google Scholar
  175. Stamper, C., & Johlke, M. (2003). The impact of perceived organizational support on the relationship between boundary spanner role stress and work outcomes. Journal of Management, 29, 569–588.Google Scholar
  176. Stinglhamber, F., De Cremer, D., & Mercken, L. (2006). Perceived support as a mediator of the relationship between justice and trust—a multiple foci approach. Group & Organization Management, 31, 442–468.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Stinglhamber, F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2003). Organizations and supervisors as sources of support and targets of commitment: A longitudinal study. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 24, 251–270.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Stinglhamber, F., & Vandenberghe, C. (2004). Favorable job conditions and perceived support: The role of organizations and supervisors. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 34, 1470–1493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Sturges, J., Conway, N., & Liefooghe, A. (2010). Organizational support, individual attributes, and the practice of career self-management behavior. Group & Organization Management, 35, 108–141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Suazo, M. M. (2009). The mediating role of psychological contract violation on the relations between psychological contract breach and work-related attitudes and behaviors. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 24, 136–160.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Suazo, M. M., & Turnley, W. H. (2010). Perceived organizational support as a mediator of the relations between individual differences and psychological contract breach. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 25, 620–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Susskind, A. M., Kacmar, K. M., & Borchgrevink, C. P. (2003). Customer service providers’ attitudes relating to customer service and customer satisfaction in the customer-server exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 179–187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. Takeuchi, R., Wang, M., Marinova, S. V., & Yao, X. (2009). Role of domain-specific facets of perceived organizational support during expatriation and implications for performance. Organization Science, 20, 621–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. Tan, H. H., & Tan, C. S. F. (2000). Toward the differentiation of trust in supervisor and trust in organization. Genetic Social and General Psychology Monographs, 126, 241–260.Google Scholar
  185. Tangirala, S., Green, S., & Ramanujam, R. (2007). In the shadow of the boss’s boss: Effects of supervisors’ upward exchange relationships on employees. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 309–320.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. Tekleab, A., Takeuchi, R., & Taylor, M. (2005). Extending the chain of relationships among organizational justice, social exchange, and employee reactions: The role of contract violations. Academy of Management Journal, 48, 146–157.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. Tetrick, L. E., Shore, L. M., McClurg, L. N., & Vandenberg, R. J. (2007). Model of union participation: The impact of perceived union support, union instrumentality, and union loyalty. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 820–828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. Travis, D. J., & Mor Barak, M. E. (2010). Fight or flight? Factors influencing child welfare workers’ propensity to seek positive change or disengage from their jobs. Journal of Social Service Research, 36, 188–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. Treadway, D. C., Hochwarter, W. A., Ferris, G. R., Kacmar, C. J., Douglas, C., Ammeter, A. P., et al. (2004). Leader political skill and employee reactions. Leadership Quarterly, 15, 493–513.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. Tremblay, M., Cloutier, J., Simard, G., Chenevert, D., & Vandenberghe, C. (2010). The role of HRM practices, procedural justice, organizational support and trust in organizational commitment and in-role and extra-role performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 21, 405–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. Tsai, C. H., Zhu, D. S., Ho, B. C. T., & Wu, D. D. (2010). The effect of reducing risk and improving personal motivation on the adoption of knowledge repository system. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 77, 840–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. Tumwesigye, G. (2010). The relationship between perceived organisational support and turnover intentions in a developing country: The mediating role of organisational commitment. African Journal of Business Management, 4, 942–952.Google Scholar
  193. Twigg, N. W., Fuller, J. B., & Hester, K. (2008). Transformational leadership in labor organizations: The effects on union citizenship behaviors. Journal of Labor Research, 29, 27–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. Tyler, K. A. (2006). The impact of support received and support provision on changes in perceived social support among older adults. The International Journal of Aging & Human Development, 62, 21–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. Van Breugel, G., Van Olffen, W., & Olie, R. (2005). Temporary liaisons: The commitment of ‘temps’ towards their agencies. Journal of Management Studies, 42, 539–566.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. Van Emmerik, I. J. H., & Euwema, M. C. (2008). The aftermath of organizational restructuring: Destruction of old and development of new social capital. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 23, 833–849.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. Van Knippenberg, D., & Sleebos, E. (2006). Organizational identification versus organizational commitment: Self-definition, social exchange, and job attitudes. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 571–584.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. Van Maanen, J., & Schein, E. H. (1979). Toward a theory of organizational socialization. In B. M. Staw (Ed.), Research in organizational behavior (Vol. 1, pp. 209–264). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  199. Vandenberghe, C., Bentein, K., Michon, R., Chebat, J., Tremblay, M., & Fils, J. (2007). An examination of the role of perceived support and employee commitment in employee-customer encounters. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1177–1187.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. Veitch, R. W. D., & Cooper-Thomas, H. D. (2009). Tit for tat? Predictors of temporary agency workers’ commitments. Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources, 47, 318–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. Villanueva, D., & Djurkovic, N. (2009). Occupational stress and intention to leave among employees in small and medium enterprises. International Journal of Stress Management, 16, 124–137.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  202. Wallace, J. C., Edwards, B. D., Arnold, T., Frazier, M. L., & Finch, D. M. (2009). Work stressors, role-based performance, and the moderating influence of organizational support. Journal of Applied Psychology, 94, 254–262.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  203. Wallace, J., Popp, E., & Mondore, S. (2006). Safety climate as a mediator between foundation climates and occupational accidents: A group-level investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91, 681–688.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. Walters, G., & Raybould, M. (2007). Burnout and perceived organisational support among front-line hospitality employees. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 14, 144–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. Wang, M. L. (2009a). What makes a good citizen in service settings? Service Industries Journal, 29, 621–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. Wang, M. L. (2009b). Does organizational support promote citizenship in service settings? The moderating role of service climate. The Journal of Social Psychology, 149, 648–676.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. Wang, M. L. (2010). Does organisational support promote citizenship? The moderating role of market-focused HRM. Service Industries Journal, 30, 1077–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. Wang, C. L., Indridason, T., & Saunders, M. N. K. (2010). Affective and continuance commitment in public private partnership. Employee Relations, 32, 396–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. Wang, M., & Takeuchi, R. (2007). The role of goal orientation during longitudinal expatriation: A cross-sectional and investigation. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92, 1437–1445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. Watt, J. D., & Hargis, M. B. (2010). Boredom proneness: Its relationship with subjective underemployment, perceived organizational support, and job performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 163–174.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. Webster, J. R., & Adams, G. A. (2010). Organizational support and contract fulfillment as moderators of the relationship between preferred work status and performance. Journal of Business and Psychology, 25, 131–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  212. Whitener, E. M. (2001). Do ‘high commitment’ human resource practices affect employee commitment? A cross-level analysis using hierarchical linear modeling. Journal of Management, 27, 515–535.Google Scholar
  213. Wilson, M. G., DeJoy, D. M., Vandenberg, R. J., Richardson, H. A., & McGrath, A. L. (2004). Work characteristics and employee health and well-being: Test of a model of healthy work organization. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 77, 565–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. Witt, L., & Carlson, D. (2006). The work-family interface and job performance: Moderating effects of conscientiousness and perceived organizational support. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 11, 343–357.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. Wong, H., Wong, M. C. S., Wong, S. Y. S., & Lee, A. (2010). The association between shift duty and abnormal eating behavior among nurses working in a major hospital: A cross-sectional study. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 47, 1021–1027.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. Xiaofeng, X., Hongsheng, C., Xuanhui, L., & Jiming, Z. (2005). About the organizational support theory. Psychological Science (China), 28, 130–132.Google Scholar
  217. Yi, Y., & Gong, T. (2009). An integrated model of customer social exchange relationship: The moderating role of customer experience. Service Industries Journal, 29, 1513–1528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. Yimo, S. (2007). Antecedents and consequences of organizational identification: A social exchange perspective. Acta Psychologica Sinica, 39, 918–925.Google Scholar
  219. Yoon, J., & Thye, S. (2002). A dual process model of organizational commitment: Job satisfaction and organizational support. Work and Occupations, 29, 97–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. Zagenczyk, T. J., Scott, K. D., Gibney, R., Murrell, A. J., & Thatcher, J. B. (2010). Social influence and perceived organizational support: A social networks analysis. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 111, 127–138.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. Zampetakis, L. A., Beldekos, P., & Moustakis, V. S. (2009). “Day-to-day” entrepreneurship within organisations: The rote of trait emotional intelligence and perceived organisational support. European Management Journal, 27, 165–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. Zhang, Z., & Jia, M. (2010). Using social exchange theory to predict the effects of high-performance human resource practices on corporate entrepreneurship: Evidence form China. Human Resource Management, 49, 743–765.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Benjamin E. Baran
    • 1
  • Linda Rhoades Shanock
    • 2
  • Lindsay R. Miller
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of Management, Haile/US Bank College of BusinessNorthern Kentucky UniversityHighland HeightsUSA
  2. 2.Organizational Science and Department of PsychologyUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA
  3. 3.Organizational ScienceUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA

Personalised recommendations