Journal of Business and Psychology

, Volume 24, Issue 2, pp 225–243 | Cite as

A Comprehensive Model of Entrepreneur Role Stress Antecedents and Consequences

  • Joakim Wincent
  • Daniel Örtqvist



The aim of this study was to systematize findings in role stress research into original and conceptually important abstract higher-order constructs and to develop and test a comprehensive structural equation model that examined such expanded conceptualizations of antecedents and consequences to entrepreneur role stress.


Model tests were performed on data from a sample of 282 Swedish entrepreneurs (a usable rate of 22.5%) engaged in their first-year of venture activities. We used structural equation modeling, mediation tests and tests for common method bias to test the appropriateness of the model.


We found that role stress can be explained by expansions of lower-ranked, less abstract constructs embedded in a multiple-indicator model of venture technology, venture environment, and entrepreneur personality. The analysis confirmed that role stress is an important mediator and that it has pronounced relationships to expanded conceptualizations of role-related rewards and exhaustion.


This study advance role stress theory and existing knowledge about entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship when it introduces role stress and suggests it mediates the effects from personality traits, organizational and environmental characteristics, on higher-order conceptualizations of rewards and exhaustion.


With contributions from several distinct disciplines over a half decade, prior research has not paid much attention to show how role stress research can benefit from more abstract conceptualizations and empirical evaluation. By synthesizing and developing expanded higher-level conceptualizations that link diversities, we show that expanded conceptualizations effectively enable to introduce role stress to entrepreneurs and entrepreneurship.


Entrepreneurship Exhaustion Performance Personality Role stress 


  1. Abdel-Halim, A. A. (1981). Effects of role stress-job design-technology interaction on employee work satisfaction. Academy of Management Journal, 24, 260–273. doi: 10.2307/255840.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abell, D., & Hammond, J. (1979). Strategic market planning: Problems and analytical approaches. New York: Englewood Cliffs.Google Scholar
  3. Anderson, J. C., & Gerbing, D. W. (1988). Structural equation modeling in practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411–423. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.103.3.411.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Ashforth, B. E., & Saks, A. M. (1996). Socialization tactics: Longitudinal effects on newcomer adjustment. Academy of Management Journal, 39, 149–178. doi: 10.2307/256634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Babin, B. J., & Boles, J. S. (1998). Employee behavior in a service environment: A model and test of potential differences between men and women. Journal of Marketing, 62, 77–91. doi: 10.2307/1252162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bagozzi, R. P. (1980). The nature and causes of self-esteem, performance, and satisfaction in the sales force: A structural equation approach. Journal of Business, 53, 315–331. doi: 10.1086/296088.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bamber, E. M., Snowball, D., & Tubbs, R. M. (1989). Audit structure and its relation to role conflict and role ambiguity: An empirical investigation. Accounting Review, 64, 285–299.Google Scholar
  8. Barling, J. (1992). Employment, stress and family functioning. Chichester, England: Wiley.Google Scholar
  9. Baum, J. R., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of entrepreneurial traits, skill, and motivation to subsequent venture growth. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 89, 587–598. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.89.4.587.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Baum, J. R., Locke, E. A., & Smith, K. G. (2001). A multidimensional model of venture growth. Academy of Management Journal, 44, 292–303. doi: 10.2307/3069456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Beauchamp, M. R., Bray, S. R., Eys, M. A., & Carron, A. V. (2002). Role ambiguity, role efficacy, and role performance: Multidimensional and mediational relationships within interdependent sport teams. Group Dynamics, 6, 229–242. doi: 10.1037/1089-2699.6.3.229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bedeian, A. G., & Armenakis, A. A. (1981). A path-analytical study of the consequences of role conflict and ambiguity. Academy of Management Journal, 24, 417–425. doi: 10.2307/255852.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bedeian, A. G., Burke, B. G., & Moffett, R. G. (1988). Outcomes of work-family conflict among married male and female professionals. Academy of Management Journal, 14, 475–491.Google Scholar
  14. Beehr, T. A., Jex, S. M., Stacy, B. A., & Murray, M. A. (2000). Work stressors and coworker support as predictors of individual strain and job performance. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 21, 391–405. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(200006)21:4<391::AID-JOB15>3.0.CO;2-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Beehr, T. A., Walsh, J. T., & Taber, T. D. (1976). Relationship of stress to individually and organizationally valued strategies: Higher order needs as a moderator. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 61, 41–47. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.61.1.41.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Begley, T. M., & Boyd, D. P. (1987). Psychological characteristics associated with performance in entrepreneurial firms and smaller businesses. Journal of Business Venturing, 2, 79–93. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(87)90020-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Behrman, D. N., & Perreault, W. D., Jr. (1984). A role stress model of the performance and satisfaction of industrial salespersons. Journal of Marketing, 48, 9–21. doi: 10.2307/1251506.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Blalack, R. O., & Davis, H. J. (1975). Role ambiguity, job-related and job satisfaction. Journal of Management, 1, 31–37. doi: 10.1177/014920637500100106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Boles, J. S., & Babin, B. J. (1996). On the front lines: Stress, conflict and customer service provider. Journal of Business Research, 37, 41–50. doi: 10.1016/0148-2963(96)00025-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Boles, J. S., Johnston, M. W., & Hair, J. F., Jr. (1997). Role stress, work-family conflict and emotional exhaustion: Inter-relationships and effects on some work-related consequences. Journal of Personal Selling & Sales Management, 17, 17–28.Google Scholar
  21. Brannick, M. T. (1995). Critical comments on applying covariance structure modeling. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 16, 201–213. doi: 10.1002/job.4030160303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Brush, C. G., & Vanderwerf, P. A. (1992). A comparison of methods and sources for obtaining estimates of new venture performance. Journal of Business Venturing, 7, 157–170. doi: 10.1016/0883-9026(92)90010-O.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Budner, S. (1982). Intolerance for ambiguity as a personality variable. Journal of Personality, 30, 29–50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1962.tb02303.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Burke, R. J. (1989). Some antecedents and consequences of work-family conflict. In E. B. Goldsmith (Ed.), Work and family theory, research and applications (pp. 287–302). Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
  25. Burke, R. J., Weir, T., & DuWors, R. E., Jr. (1979). Type A behavior of administrators and wives’ reports of marital satisfaction and well-being. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 64, 57–65. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.64.1.57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Chung, Y. Y., & Ding, C. G. (2002). Development of the sales locus of control scale. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 75, 233–245. doi: 10.1348/09631790260098514.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Churchill, G., Ford, N., & Walker, O. (1976). Organizational climate and job satisfaction in the sales force. Journal of Marketing Research, 13, 323–332. doi: 10.2307/3151014.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Collins, C. J., Hanges, P. J., & Locke, E. A. (2004). The relationship of achievement motivation to entrepreneurial behavior: A meta-analysis. Human Performance, 17, 95–117. doi: 10.1207/S15327043HUP1701_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Cooper, C. L., Dewe, P. J., & O’Driscoll, M. P. (2001). Organizational stress. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  30. Cordes, C. L., Dougherty, T. W., & Blum, M. (1997). Patterns of burnout among managers and professionals: A comparison of models. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 18, 685–701. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1379(199711)18:6<685::AID-JOB817>3.0.CO;2-U.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Davis, D., Morris, M., & Allen, J. (1991). Perceived environmental turbulence and its effect on selected entrepreneurship, marketing and organizational characteristics in industrial firms. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 19, 43–51. doi: 10.1007/BF02723423.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Demerouti, E., Bakker, A. B., Nachreiner, F., & Schaufeli, W. B. (2001). The job demands-resources model of burnout. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 86, 499–512. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.86.3.499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Dess, G. G., Ireland, R. D., Zahra, S. A., Floyd, S. W., Janney, J. J., & Lane, P. J. (2003). Emerging issues in corporate entrepreneurship. Journal of Management, 29, 351–378.Google Scholar
  34. Dess, G. D., Lumpkin, G. T., & Covin, J. G. (1997). Entrepreneurial strategy making and firm performance: Tests of contingency and configurational models. Strategic Management Journal, 18, 677–695. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199710)18:9<677::AID-SMJ905>3.0.CO;2-Q.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Drucker, P. F. (1984). Our entrepreneurial economy. Harvard Business Review, pp. 59–64 (Jan–Feb).Google Scholar
  36. Dubrin, A. J. (1984). Foundations of organizational behavior: An applied perspective. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  37. Floyd, S. W., & Lane, P. J. (2000). Strategizing throughout the organization: Managing role conflict in strategic renewal. Academy of Management Review, 25, 154–177. doi: 10.2307/259268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Fox, S., Spector, P. E., & Miles, D. (2001). Counterproductive work behavior (CWB) in response to job stressors and organizational justice: Some mediator and moderator tests for autonomy and emotions. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 59, 291–309. doi: 10.1006/jvbe.2001.1803.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Fry, L. W., Futrell, C. M., Parasuraman, A., & Chmielewski, M. A. (1986). An analysis of alternative causal models of salesperson role perceptions and work-related attitudes. Journal of Marketing Research, 23, 153–163. doi: 10.2307/3151662.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Fry, L. W., & Hellriegel, D. (1987). The role and expectancy participation model: An empirical assessment and extension. Journal of Occupational Behavior, 8, 295–309. doi: 10.1002/job.4030080403.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Gartner, W. B. (1985). A conceptual framework for describing the phenomenon of new venture creation. Academy of Management Review, 10, 696–706. doi: 10.2307/258039.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Gartner, W. B. (1989). Some suggestions for research on entrepreneurial traits and characteristics. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 14, 27–37.Google Scholar
  43. Getzels, J. W., & Guba, E. G. (1955). Role conflict and personality. Journal of Personality, 24, 74–85. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.1955.tb01175.x.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Greenhaus, J. B., & Beutell, N. J. (1985). Sources of conflict between work and family roles. Academy of Management Review, 10, 76–89. doi: 10.2307/258214.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Hall, D. T. (1972). A model of coping with role conflict: The role behavior of college educated women. Administrative Science Quarterly, 17, 471–486. doi: 10.2307/2393827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hansemark, O. C. (2003). Need for achievement, locus of control and the prediction of business start-ups: A longitudinal study. Journal of Economic Psychology, 24, 301–319. doi: 10.1016/S0167-4870(02)00188-5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Hartline, M. D., & Ferrell, O. C. (1996). The management of customer-contact service employees: An empirical investigation. Journal of Marketing, 60, 52–70. doi: 10.2307/1251901.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Holland, J. L. (1973). Making vocational choices: A theory of careers. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  49. Holland, J. L. (1974). The occupations finder. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  50. Holland, J. L. (1975). Manual for the vocational preference inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.Google Scholar
  51. Howard, J. H., Cunningham, D. A., & Rechnitzer, P. A. (1986). Role ambiguity, Type A behavior, and job satisfaction: Moderating effects on cardiovascular and biochemical responses associated with coronary risk. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 71, 95–101. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.71.1.95.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Ironson, G. (1992). Work, job stress, and health. In S. Zedeck (Ed.), Work, families, and organizations: Frontiers of industrial and organizational psychology (Vol. 5, pp. 1–32). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  53. ITPS, Institutet för tillväxtpolitiska studier. (2004). Newly-started enterprises in Sweden 2002 and 2003. Sveriges officiella statistic (Swedish official statistics) S2004:008.Google Scholar
  54. Jelinek, M., & Litterer, J. A. (1995). Toward entrepreneurial organizations: Meeting ambiguity with engagement. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 19, 137–168.Google Scholar
  55. Jex, S. M. (1998). Stress and job performance. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  56. Johnson, B. (1990). Toward a multidimensional model of entrepreneurship: The case of achievement motivation and the entrepreneur. Entrepreneurship: Theory & Practice, 14, 39–54.Google Scholar
  57. Johnson, J., Griffeth, R., & Griffin, M. (2000). Factors discriminating functional and dysfunctional sales force turnover. Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing, 15, 399–415. doi: 10.1108/08858620010349493.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Johnston, M. W., Parasuraman, A., Futrell, C. M., & Black, W. C. (1990). A longitudinal assessment of the impact of selected organizational influences on salespeople’s organizational commitment during early employment. Journal of Marketing Research, 27, 333–344. doi: 10.2307/3172590.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kahill, S. (1988). Symptoms of professional burnout: A review of the empirical evidence. Canadian Psychology, 26, 284–297. doi: 10.1037/h0079772.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kahn, R. L., Wolfe, D. M., Quinn, R. P., Snoek, J. D., & Rosenthal, R. A. (1964). Organizational stress: Studies in role conflict and ambiguity. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  61. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1966). The social psychology of organizations (1st ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  62. Katz, D., & Kahn, R. L. (1978). The social psychology of organizations (2nd ed.). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  63. Keenan, A., & McBain, G. D. M. (1979). Effects of type A behavior, intolerance of ambiguity, and locus of control on the relationship between role stress and work-related outcomes. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 52, 277–285.Google Scholar
  64. Keller, R. T., & Szilagyi, A. D. (1976). Employee reactions to leader reward behavior. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 619–627. doi: 10.2307/255795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kelloway, E. K., & Barling, J. (1991). Job characteristics, role stress and mental health. Journal of Occupational Psychology, 64, 291–304.Google Scholar
  66. Kelloway, E. K., Gottlieb, B. H., & Barham, L. (1999). The source, nature, and direction of work and family conflict: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 4, 337–346. doi: 10.1037/1076-8998.4.4.337.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Khandwalla, P. N. (1977). The design of organizations. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.Google Scholar
  68. Latack, J. C. (1981). Person/role conflict: Holland’s model extended to role-stress research, stress management, and career development. Academy of Management Review, 6, 89–103. doi: 10.2307/257143.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Lindgren, H. C., Moritsch, B., Thulin, E. K., & Mich, G. (1986). Validity studies of three measures of achievement motivation. Psychological Reports, 59, 123–136.Google Scholar
  70. Lysonski, S. (1985). A boundary theory investigation of the product manager’s role. Journal of Marketing, 49, 26–40. doi: 10.2307/1251173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Lysonski, S., & Andrews, G. (1990). Effects of moderating variables on product managers’ behavior. Psychological Reports, 66, 295–306. doi: 10.2466/PR0.66.1.295-306.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Macintosh, N. B. (1985). The social software of accounting and information systems. Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
  73. McClelland, D. C., Atkinson, J., Clark, R., & Lowell, E. (1953). The achievement motive. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. McGrath, J. E. (1976). Stress and behavior in organizations. In M. D. Dunnette (Ed.), Handbook of industrial and organizational psychology (pp. 1351–1395). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  75. McLain, D. L. (1993). The MSTAT-I: A new measure of an individual’s tolerance for ambiguity. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 183–189. doi: 10.1177/0013164493053001020.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Mescon, T. S., & Montanari, J. R. (1981). The personalities of independent and franchise entrepreneurs: An empirical analysis of concepts. In academy of management proceedings, pp. 413–417.Google Scholar
  77. Miles, R. H., & Perreault, W. D., Jr. (1976). Organizational role conflict: Its antecedents and consequences. Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, 17, 19–44. doi: 10.1016/0030-5073(76)90051-9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Miller, D. (1987). Strategy making and structure: Analysis and implications for performance. Academy of Management Journal, 30, 7–32. doi: 10.2307/255893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Miller, D. (1988). Relating Porter’s business strategies to environment and structure: Analysis and performance implications. Academy of Management Journal, 31, 280–308. doi: 10.2307/256549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Miller, D., & Droge, C. (1986). Psychological and traditional determinants of structure. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, 539–560. doi: 10.2307/2392963.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Miller, D., & Friesen, P. (1983). Strategy-making and environment: The third link. Strategic Management Journal, 4, 221–235. doi: 10.1002/smj.4250040304.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Nicholson, P. J., Jr, & Goh, S. C. (1983). The relationship of organization structure and interpersonal attitudes to role conflict and ambiguity in different work environments. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 148–155. doi: 10.2307/256141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory (2nd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  84. O’Driscoll, M. P., & Beehr, T. A. (1994). Supervisor behaviors, role stressors and uncertainty as predictors of personal outcomes for subordinates. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 15, 141–155. doi: 10.1002/job.4030150204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Örtqvist, D., & Wincent, J. (2006). Prominent consequences of role stress: A meta-analytic review. International Journal of Stress Management, 13, 399–422. doi: 10.1037/1072-5245.13.4.399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Paine, R. (1988). Individual differences in the study of occupational stress. In C. L. Cooper & R. Payne (Eds.), Canses, coping and consequences of stress at work (pp. 76–82). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  87. Panigyrakis, G., & Glynn, L. (1992). Women consumer product managers in France. In M. Baker (Ed.), Marketing perspectives (Vol. 2). London: Addisson Wesley.Google Scholar
  88. Perrow, C. (1967). A framework for the comparative analysis of organizations. American Sociological Review, 32, 194–208. doi: 10.2307/2091811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Peterson, M., Smith, P., Akande, A., Ayestaran, S., Bochner, S., Callan, V., et al. (1995). Role conflict, ambiguity and overload: A 21-nation study. Academy of Management Journal, 38, 429–452. doi: 10.2307/256687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J.-Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method bias in behavioral research: A critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 88, 879–903. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Moorman, R., & Fetter, R. (1990). The impact of transformational leader behaviors on employee trust, satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behaviors. The Leadership Quarterly, 1, 107–142. doi: 10.1016/1048-9843(90)90009-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Powell, L. N. (1987). Issues in the measurement of type A behavior pattern. In S. V. Kasl & C. L. Cooper (Eds.), Stress and health: Issues in research methodology (pp. 36–54). London: Wiley.Google Scholar
  93. Ray, J. J. (1979). A quick measure of achievement motivation: Validated in Australia and reliable in Britain and South Africa. Australian Psychologist, 14, 337–344. doi: 10.1080/00050067908254361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rizzo, J. R., House, R. I., & Lirtzman, S. I. (1970). Role conflict and ambiguity in complex organizations. Administrative Science Quarterly, 15, 150–163. doi: 10.2307/2391486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rizzo, R., Piccinelli, M., Mazzi, M. A., Bellantuono, C., & Tansella, M. (2000). The personal health questionnaire: A new screening instrument for detection of ICD-10 depressive disorders in primary care. Psychological Medicine, 30, 831–840. doi: 10.1017/S0033291799002512.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Schaubroeck, J., Cotton, J. L., & Jennings, K. R. (1989). Antecedents and consequences of role stress: A covariance structure analysis. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 35–58. doi: 10.1002/job.4030100104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shane, S., Locke, E. A., & Collins, C. J. (2003). Entrepreneurial motivation. Human Resource Management Review, 13, 257–279. doi: 10.1016/S1053-4822(03)00017-2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Shane, S., & Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review, 25, 217–226. doi: 10.2307/259271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Shepherd, D. A. (2003). Learning from business failure: Propositions for grief recovery for self-employed. Academy of Management Review, 28, 318–328.Google Scholar
  100. Simpson, N. (1984). Validation of a new self-rating questionnaire to detect psychiatric illness in general practice: The personal health questionnaire. M.Sc. Thesis, University of Manchester, Victoria.Google Scholar
  101. Singh, J., & Rhoads, G. K. (1991). Boundary role ambiguity in marketing-oriented positions: A multidimensional, multifaceted operationalization. Journal of Marketing Research, 28, 328–338. doi: 10.2307/3172868.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Smilor, R. W. (1997). Entrepreneurship: Reflections on a subversive activity. Journal of Business Venturing, 125, 341–344. doi: 10.1016/S0883-9026(97)00008-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Smith, C. S., & Brannick, M. T. (1990). A role and expectancy model of participative decision-making: A replication and theoretical extension. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 11, 91–104. doi: 10.1002/job.4030110202.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Teas, R. K. (1983). Supervisory behavior, role stress, and the job satisfaction of industrial salespeople. Journal of Marketing Research, 20, 84–91. doi: 10.2307/3151415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Tosi, H. (1971). Organization stress as a moderator of the relationship between influence and role response. Academy of Management Journal, 14, 7–20. doi: 10.2307/254707.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Van Yperen, N. W., & Hagedoorn, M. (2003). Do high job demands increase intrinsic motivation or fatigue or both? The role of job control and social support. Academy of Management Journal, 46, 339–348.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Veloutsou, C. A., & Panigyrakis, G. G. (2004). Consumer brand managers’ job stress, job satisfaction, perceived performance and intention to leave. Journal of Marketing Management, 20, 105–131. doi: 10.1362/026725704773041140.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Venkataraman, S. (1997). The distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research: An editor’s perspective. In J. Katz & R. Brockhaus (Eds.), Advances in entrepreneurship, firm emergence, and growth (Vol. 3, pp. 119–138). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press.Google Scholar
  109. Villanova, P. (1996). Productive validity of situational constraints in general versus specific performance domains. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 81, 532–547. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.81.5.532.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Voydanoff, P. (2002). Linkages between the work-family interface and work, family, and individual outcomes. Journal of Family Issues, 23, 138–164. doi: 10.1177/0192513X02023001007.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Walker, O. C., Jr, Churchill, G. A., Jr, & Ford, N. M. (1975). Organizational determinants of the industrial salesman’s role conflict and ambiguity. Journal of Marketing, 39, 32–39. doi: 10.2307/1250800.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Ward, E. A. (1994). Construct validity of need for achievement and locus of control scales. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 54, 983–992. doi: 10.1177/0013164494054004015.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Westman, M., & Eden, D. (1997). Effects of a respite from work on burnout: Vacation relief and fade-out. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 82, 516–527. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.82.4.516.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Wiklund, J. (1998). Small firm growth and performance: Entrepreneurship and beyond. Jönköping International Business School, JIBS Dissertation Series No. 003.Google Scholar
  115. Wiklund, J. (1999). The sustainability of the entrepreneurial orientation–performance relationship. Entrepreneurship Theory into Practice, 24, 37–49.Google Scholar
  116. Withey, M., Daft, R. L., & Cooper, W. H. (1983). Measures of Perrow’s work unit technology: An empirical assessment and a new scale. Academy of Management Journal, 26, 45–63. doi: 10.2307/256134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Zahra, S., & Dess, G. G. (2001). Entrepreneurship as a field of research: Encouraging dialogue and debate. Academy of Management Review, 26, 8–20.Google Scholar
  118. Zahra, S. A., Ireland, R. D., & Hitt, M. A. (2000). International expansion by new venture firms: International diversity mode of market entry, technological learning, and performance. Academy of Management Journal, 43, 925–950. doi: 10.2307/1556420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Zahrly, J., & Tosi, H. (1989). The differential effect of organizational induction process on early work role adjustment. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 10, 59–74.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Luleå University of TechnologyLuleåSweden

Personalised recommendations