Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 41, Issue 1, pp 87–98 | Cite as

Guided imagery targeting exercise, food cravings, and stress: a multi-modal randomized feasibility trial

  • Peter GiacobbiJr.
  • Dustin Long
  • Richard Nolan
  • Samantha Shawley
  • Kelsey Johnson
  • Ranjita Misra
Article

Abstract

The purpose of this randomized wait-list controlled trial was to test the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a guided imagery based multi-behavior intervention intended to address psychological stress, food cravings, and physical activity. Personalized guided imagery scripts were created and participants were instructed to practice guided imagery every day for 35 consecutive days. Of 48 women who enrolled, we report comparisons between 16 randomized to treatment with 19 who were wait-listed (overall Mage = 45.50; Mbodymassindex = 31.43). Study completers reported 89% compliance with practicing guided imagery during the intervention. A significant time-by-group interaction was observed with reductions in food cravings and increases in physical activity compared with wait-list controls. Telephone-based multi-behavior interventions that utilize guided imagery to address food cravings and exercise behavior appear to be acceptable for overweight and obese women. Future phone-based guided imagery research testing this skill to address multiple health behaviors is justified.

Keywords

Food cravings Exercise Stress Guided imagery 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This publication is a product of the West Virginia Prevention Research Center and was supported by Cooperative Agreement Number 1-U48-DP-005004 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The findings and conclusions in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Authors Peter Giacobbi, Jr., Dustin Long, Richard Nolan, Samantha Shawley, Kelsey Johnson, and Ranjita Misra declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

References

  1. Abildso, C. G., Zizzi, S., & Fitzpatrick, S. J. (2013). Predictors of clinically significant weight loss and participant retention in an insurance-sponsored community-based weight management program. Health Promot Pract, 14(4), 580–588. doi: 10.1177/1524839912462393 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. Alberts, H. J. E. M., Thewissen, R., & Raes, L. (2012). Dealing with problematic eating behaviour. The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behaviour, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite, 58(3), 847–851. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Andersson, E. K., & Moss, T. P. (2011). Imagery and implementation intention: A randomised controlled trial of interventions to increase exercise behaviour in the general population. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 12, 63–70. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.07.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Andrade, J., Pears, S., May, J., & Kavanagh, D. J. (2012). Use of a clay modeling task to reduce chocolate craving. Appetite, 58(3), 955–963. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2012.02.044 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bhutani, G. E. (2015). Looking after me looking after you: Using positive cognitive behavioural techniques to improve emotional well-being. The Cognitive Behaviour Therapist. doi: 10.1017/S1754470X15000227 Google Scholar
  6. Bigham, E., McDannel, L., Luciano, I., & Salgado-Lopez, G. (2014). Effect of a brief guided imagery on stress. Biofeedback, 42(1), 28–35. doi: 10.5298/1081-5937-42.1.07 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bishop, F. L., Yardley, L., & Lewith, G. T. (2007). A systematic review of beliefs involved in the use of complementary and alternative medicine. Journal of Health Psychology, 12(6), 851–867. doi: 10.1177/1359105307082447 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Buman, M. P., Giacobbi, P. R., Jr., Dzierzewski, J. M., Aiken Morgan A., McCrae, C. S., Roberts, B. L., et al. (2011). Peer volunteers improve long-term maintenance of physical activity with older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Physical Activity Health, 8(Suppl 2), S257–S266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casement, M. D., & Swanson, L. M. (2012). A meta-analysis of imagery rehearsal for post-trauma nightmares: Effects on nightmare frequency, sleep quality, and posttraumatic stress. Clinical Psychology Review, 32(6), 566–574. doi: 10.1016/j.cpr.2012.06.002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. Chan, C. K., & Cameron, L. D. (2012). Promoting physical activity with goal-oriented mental imagery: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 35(3), 347–363. doi: 10.1007/s10865-011-9360-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Chao, A., Grilo, C. M., White, M. A., & Sinha, R. (2015). Food cravings mediate the relationship between chronic stress and body mass index. Journal of Health Psychology, 20(6), 721–729. doi: 10.1177/1359105315573448 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 386–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Duncan, L. R., Hall, C. R., Wilson, P. M., & Rodgers, W. M. (2012). The use of a mental imagery intervention to enhance integrated regulation for exercise among women commencing an exercise program. Motivation and Emotion, 36(4), 452–464. doi: 10.1007/s11031-011-9271-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Emmons, K. M., McBride, C. M., Puleo, E., Pollak, K. I., Clipp, E., Kuntz, K., et al. (2005). Project PREVENT: A randomized trial to reduce multiple behavioral risk factors for colon cancer. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 14(6), 1453–1459. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.epi-04-0620 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Finkelstein, E. A., Trogdon, J. G., Cohen, J. W., & Dietz, W. (2009). Annual medical spending attributable to obesity: Payer-and service-specific estimates. Health Affairs (Millwood), 28(5), w822–w831. doi: 10.1377/hlthaff.28.5.w822 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Ogden, C. L. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA, 307(5), 491–497. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.39 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Furnham, A., Vincent, C., & Wood, R. (1995). The health beliefs and behaviors of three groups of complementary medicine and a general practice group of patients. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 1, 347–359. doi: 10.1089/acm.1995.1.347 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Geller, K., Lippke, S., & Nigg, C. R. (2016). Future directions of multiple behavior change research. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. doi: 10.1007/s10865-016-9809-8 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Giacobbi, P. R., Jr., Buman, M. P., Dzierzewski, J., Aiken-Morgan, A. T., Roberts, B., Marsiske, M., et al. (2014a). Content and perceived utility of mental imagery by older adults in a peer-delivered physical activity intervention. J Appl Sport Psychol, 26(2), 129–143. doi: 10.1080/10413200.2013.803502 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Giacobbi, P. R., Jr., Dreisbach, K. A., Thurlow, N. M., Anand, P., & Garcia, F. (2014b). Mental imagery increases self-determined motivation to exercise with university enrolled women: A randomized controlled trial. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15, 374–381. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.03.004 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Giacobbi, P. R., Jr., Stabler, M. E., Stewart, J., Jaeschke, A.-M., Siebert, J., & Kelley, G. (2015). Guided imagery for arthritis and other rheumatic diseases: A systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Pain Mangement Nursing, 16(5), 792–803. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2015.01.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Godin, G., & Shephard, R. J. (1985). A simple method to assess exercise behavior in the community. Canadian Journal of Applied Sport Science, 10, 141–146.Google Scholar
  24. Goode, A. D., Reeves, M. M., & Eakin, E. G. (2012). Telephone-delivered interventions for physical activity and dietary behavior change: An updated systematic review. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(1), 81–88. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2011.08.025 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Hawkes, A. L., Chambers, S. K., Pakenham, K. I., Patrao, T. A., Baade, P. D., Lynch, B. M., et al. (2013). Effects of a telephone-delivered multiple health behavior change intervention (CanChange) on health and behavioral outcomes in survivors of colorectal cancer: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 31(18), 2313–2321. doi: 10.1200/jco.2012.45.5873 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Hawkes, A. L., Patrao, T. A., Green, A., & Aitken, J. F. (2012). CanPrevent: A telephone-delivered intervention to reduce multiple behavioural risk factors for colorectal cancer. BMC Cancer, 12, 560. doi: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-560 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Holmes, E. A., Arntz, A., & Smucker, M. R. (2007). Imagery rescripting in cognitive behaviour therapy: Images, treatment techniques and outcomes. Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry, 38(4), 297–305. doi: 10.1016/j.jbtep.2007.10.007 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Jacobs, D. R., Ainsworth, B. E., Hartman, T. J., & Leon, A. S. (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical-activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 25(1), 81–91. doi: 10.1249/00005768-199301000-00012 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Kemps, E., & Tiggemann, M. (2007). Modality-specific imagery reduces cravings for food: An application of the elaborated intrusion theory of desire to food craving. Journal of Experimental Psychology Applied, 13(2), 95–104. doi: 10.1037/1076-898x.13.2.95 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Kemps, E., & Tiggemann, M. (2014). A role for mental imagery in the experience and reduction of food cravings. Frontiers in Psychiatry. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00193 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Knauper, B., McCollam, A., Rosen-Brown, A., Lacaille, J., Kelso, E., & Roseman, M. (2011). Fruitful plans: Adding targeted mental imagery to implementation intentions increases fruit consumption. Psychology and Health, 26(5), 601–617. doi: 10.1080/08870441003703218 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Li, F. (1999). The exercise motivation scale: Its multifaceted structure and construct validity. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 11, 97–115. doi: 10.1080/10413209908402953 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Mason, A. E., Epel, E. S., Aschbacher, K., Lustig, R. H., Acree, M., Kristeller, J., et al. (2016). Reduced reward-driven eating accounts for the impact of a mindfulness-based diet and exercise intervention on weight loss: Data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial. Appetite, 100, 86–93. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2016.02.009 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  34. May, J., Andrade, J., Kavanagh, D., & Penfound, L. (2008). Imagery and strength of craving for eating, drinking, and playing sport. Cognition and Emotion, 22(4), 633–650. doi: 10.1080/02699930701446296 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mc Sharry, J., Olander, E. K., & French, D. P. (2015). Do single and multiple behavior change interventions contain different behavior change techniques? A comparison of interventions targeting physical activity in obese populations. Health Psychology, 34(9), 960–965. doi: 10.1037/hea0000185 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. McClelland, A., Kemps, E., & Tiggemann, M. (2006). Reduction of vividness and associated craving in personalized food imagery. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 62(3), 355–365. doi: 10.1002/jclp.20216 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Missbach, B., Florack, A., Weissmann, L., & König, J. (2014). Mental imagery interventions reduce subsequent food intake only when self-regulatory resources are available. Frontiers in Psychology. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01391 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  38. Morewedge, C. K., Huh, Y. E., & Vosgerau, J. (2010). Thought for food: Imagined consumption reduces actual consumption. Science, 330(6010), 1530–1533. doi: 10.1126/science.1195701 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Nichol, J., Thompson, E. A., & Shaw, A. (2011). Beliefs, decision-making, and dialog about complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) within families using CAM: A qualitative study. Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17(2), 117–125. doi: 10.1089/acm.2010.0171 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Nijs, I. M. T., Franken, I. H. A., & Muris, P. (2007). The modified trait and state food-cravings questionnaires: Development and validation of a general index of food craving. Appetite, 49(1), 38–46. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2006.11.001 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among us children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA, 307(5), 483–490. doi: 10.1001/jama.2012.40 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Potenza, M. N., & Grilo, C. (2014). How relevant is food craving to obesity and its treatment? Frontiers in Psychiatry. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2014.00164 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  43. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Ryan, R. M., Patrick, H., Deci, E. L., & Williams, G. C. (2008). Facilitating behavior change and its maintenance: Interventions based on self-determination theory. The European Health Psychologist, 10, 2–5.Google Scholar
  45. Schiller, J. S., Lucas, J. W., Ward, B. W., & Peregoy, J. A. (2012). Summary health statistics for U.S. adults: National Health Interview Survey, 2010. Vital Health Statistics, 10(252).Google Scholar
  46. Silva, M. N., Vieira, P. N., Coutinho, S. R., Minderico, C. S., Matos, M. G., Sardinha, L. B., et al. (2010). Using self-determination theory to promote physical activity and weight control: A randomized controlled trial in women. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 33, 110–122. doi: 10.1007/s10865-009-9239 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Skorka-Brown, J., Andrade, J., & May, J. (2014). Playing ‘Tetris’ reduces the strength, frequency and vividness of naturally occurring cravings. Appetite, 76, 161–165. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2014.01.073 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Spring, B., Moller, A. C., & Coons, M. J. (2012). Multiple health behaviours: Overview and implications. Journal of Public Health, 34(Suppl 1), i3–i10. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdr111 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  49. Stanley, D. M., & Cumming, J. (2010). Are we having fun yet? Testing the effects of imagery use on the affective and enjoyment responses to acute moderate exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 11, 582–590. doi: 10.1016/j.psychsport.2010.06.010 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Teixeira, P. J., Carraca, E. V., Markland, D., Silva, M. N., & Ryan, R. M. (2012). Exercise, physical activity, and self-determination theory: A systematic review. International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 9(78), http://www.ijbnpa.org/content/9/1/78
  51. Thomas, N. J. T. (2016). Mental Imagery: The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. In E. N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Summer, 2016 ed.): Center for the Study of Language and Information. Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/sum2016/entries/mental-imagery
  52. Tiggemann, M., & Kemps, E. (2005). The phenomenology of food cravings: The role of mental imagery. Appetite, 45(3), 305–313. doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2005.06.004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. US Department of Health and Human Services. (2008). Physical activity guidelines advisory committee report 2008. Retrieved from http://www.health.gov/paguidelines/committeereport.aspx
  54. van Berkel, J., Boot, C. R. L., Proper, K. I., Bongers, P. M., & van der Beek, A. J. (2014). Effectiveness of a worksite mindfulness-based multi-component intervention on lifestyle behaviors. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-11-9 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  55. Vander Wal, J. S., Johnston, K. A., & Dhurandhar, N. V. (2007). Psychometric properties of the State and Trait Food Cravings Questionnaires among overweight and obese persons. Eating Behaviors, 8(2), 211–223. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2006.06.002 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Verkaik, R., Busch, M., Koeneman, T., van den Berg, R., Spreeuwenberg, P., & Francke, A. L. (2014). Guided imagery in people with fibromyalgia: A randomized controlled trial of effects on pain, functional status and self-efficacy. Journal of Health Psychology, 19(5), 678–688. doi: 10.1177/1359105313477673 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Wininger, S. R. (2007). Self-determination theory and exercise behavior: An examination of the psychometric properties of the exercise motivation scale. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 19, 471–486.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. World Health Organization. (2010). Global recommendations on physical activity and health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sport Sciences, Joint Appointment, Social and Behavioral SciencesWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, School of Public HealthUniversity of Alabama at BirminghamBirminghamUSA
  3. 3.School of MedicineWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA
  4. 4.School of Public HealthWest Virginia UnivesityMorgantownUSA
  5. 5.Department of Social and Behavioral Sciences, School of Public HealthWest Virginia UniversityMorgantownUSA

Personalised recommendations