Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 40, Issue 3, pp 468–482 | Cite as

Investigating the role of implicit prototypes in the prototype willingness model

Article

Abstract

One useful theory to predict health behavior is the prototype-willingness model (PWM), which posits that people are more willing to engage in behavior to the extent that they have a positive view of the prototypical person who performs that behavior. The goal of the present research is to test whether adding an implicit measure of prototype favorability might improve explanatory power in the PWM. Two studies examined whether implicit prototype favorability uniquely predicted White women’s intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior over the next 3–6 months, and their willingness to engage in risky sun behavior, should the opportunity arise. The results suggested that implicit prototype favorability, particularly implicit prototypes of those who engage in risky UV-related behaviors, uniquely predicted intentions to engage in healthy sun behavior and willingness to engage in risky sun behavior in the PWM.

Keywords

Prototypes Prototype willingness model Implicit attitudes UV protection Sun behavior Health behavior models  

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Jennifer L. Howell and Kate A. Ratliff declares that they have no conflict of interest.

Human and animal rights and Informed consent

All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhl & J. Beckman (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Berlin: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Albarracin, D., Johnson, B. T., Fishbein, M., & Muellerleile, P. A. (2001). Theories of reasoned action and planned behavior as models of condom use: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 127, 142–161. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.127.1.142 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2010). Multiple imputation with Mplus. MPlus Web Notes.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, M. H. (1974). The health belief model and personal health behavior (Vol. 2). Slack.Google Scholar
  5. Choi, K., Lazovich, D., Southwell, B., Forster, J., Rolnick, S. J., & Jackson, J. (2010). Prevalence and characteristics of indoor tanning use among men and women in the United States. Archives of Dermatology, 146, 1356–1361.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. De Houwer, J., Teige-Mocigemba, S., Spruyt, A., & Moors, A. (2009). Implicit measures: A normative analysis and review. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 347.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Diepgen, T., & Mahler, V. (2002). The epidemiology of skin cancer. British Journal of Dermatology, 146, 1–6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39, 175–191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fishbein, M. (1979). A theory of reasoned action: Some applications and implications. Paper presented at the Nebraska Symposium on Motivation.Google Scholar
  10. Fishbein, M. (2008). A reasoned action approach to health promotion. Medical Decision Making, 28, 834–844.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gallagher, R. P., Spinelli, J. J., & Lee, T. K. (2005). Tanning beds, sunlamps, and risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 14, 562–566.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gawronski, B., & Bodenhausen, G. V. (2006). Associative and propositional processes in evaluation: An integrative review of implicit and explicit attitude change. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 692.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gawronski, B., LeBel, E. P., & Peters, K. R. (2007). What do implicit measures tell us? Scrutinizing the validity of three common assumptions. Perspectives on Psychological Science, 2, 181–193.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Houlihan, A. E., Stock, M. L., & Pomery, E. A. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28, 29–61. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2007.10.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Reis-Bergan, M., Trudeau, L., Vande Lune, L. S., & Buunk, B. (2002). Inhibitory effects of drinker and nondrinker prototypes on adolescent alcohol consumption. Health Psychology, 21, 601–609. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.21.6.601 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F. X., Stock, M. L., Vande Lune, L. S., & Cleveland, M. J. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30, 305–318. doi: 10.1093/jpepsy/jsi026 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gibbons, F. X., Houlihan, A. E., & Gerrard, M. (2009). Reason and reaction: The utility of a dual-focus, dual-processing perspective on promotion and prevention of adolescent health risk behaviour. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 231–248. doi: 10.1348/135910708x376640 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Gibbons, F. X., Pomery, E. A., Gerrard, M., Sargent, J. D., Weng, C.-Y., Wills, T. A., et al. (2010). Media as social influence: Racial differences in the effects of peers and media on adolescent alcohol cognitions and consumption. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24, 649–659. doi: 10.1037/a0020768 PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Godin, G., & Kok, G. (1996). The theory of planned behavior: A review of its applications to health-related behaviors. American Journal of Health Promotion, 11, 87–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Gosling, S. D., Rentfrow, P. J., & Swann, W. B. (2003). A very brief measure of the Big-Five personality domains. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 504–528. doi: 10.1016/S0092-6566(03)00046-1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Greenwald, A. G., & Banaji, M. R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102, 4.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Greenwald, A. G., Poehlman, T. A., Uhlmann, E. L., & Banaji, M. R. (2009). Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: III. Meta-analysis of predictive validity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 97, 17–41. doi: 10.1037/a0015575/a0015575.supp. (Supplemental).PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hamilton, K., White, K. M., Young, R. M., Hawkes, A. L., Starfelt, L. C., & Leske, S. (2012). Identifying critical sun-protective beliefs among Australian adults. Health Education Research, 27, 834–843.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Hillhouse, J. J., Adler, C. M., Drinnon, J., & Turrisi, R. (1997). Application of Azjen’s theory of planned behavior to predict sunbathing, tanning salon use, and sunscreen use intentions and behaviors. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 20, 365–378.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Howell, J. L., Ratliff, K. A., & Shepperd, J. A. (2016). Automatic attitudes and health information avoidance. Health Psychology, 35, 816-823.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Jackson, K. M., & Aiken, L. S. (2000). A psychosocial model of sun protection and sunbathing in young women: The impact of health beliefs, attitudes, norms, and self-efficacy for sun protection. Health Psychology, 19, 469.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Lai, C. K., Hoffman, K. M., & Nosek, B. A. (2013). Reducing implicit prejudice. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 7, 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Langner, O., Dotsch, R., Bijlstra, G., Wigboldus, D. H., Hawk, S. T., & van Knippenberg, A. (2010). Presentation and validation of the Radboud Faces Database. Cognition and Emotion, 24, 1377–1388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lazovich, D., Vogel, R. I., Berwick, M., Weinstock, M. A., Anderson, K. E., & Warshaw, E. M. (2010). Indoor tanning and risk of melanoma: A case-control study in a highly exposed population. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 19, 1557–1568.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Mahler, H. I. M., Kulik, J. A., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., & Harrell, J. (2003). Effects of appearance-based intervention on sun protection intentions and self-reported behaviors. Health Psychology, 22, 199–209. doi: 10.1037/0278-6133.22.2.199 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Mahler, H. I., Kulik, J. A., Harrell, J., Correa, A., Gibbons, F. X., & Gerrard, M. (2005). Effects of UV photographs, photoaging information, and use of sunless tanning lotion on sun protection behaviors. Archives of Dermatology, 141, 373–380.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Martin, S. C., Jacobsen, P. B., Lucas, D. J., Branch, K. A., & Ferron, J. M. (1999). Predicting children’s sunscreen use: Application of the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior. Preventive Medicine, 29, 37–44.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Norman, P., Armitage, C. J., & Quigley, C. (2007). The theory of planned behavior and binge drinking: Assessing the impact of binge drinker prototypes. Addictive Behaviors, 32, 1753–1768.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Ranganath, K. A., Smith, C. T., & Nosek, B. A. (2008). Distinguishing automatic and controlled components of attitudes from direct and indirect measurement methods. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 44, 386–396.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Ratliff, K. A., & Howell, J. L. (2015). Implicit prototypes predict risky sun behavior. Health Psychology, 34, 231–242.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ratliff, K. A., Redford, L., & Howell, J. (2015). Implicit prototypes predict enviornmentalism and pro-environment behavior. Unplublished Manuscript, University of Florida.Google Scholar
  37. Redford, L., Howell, J. L., Meijs, M. H., & Ratliff, K. A. (2016). Implicit and explicit evaluations of feminist prototypes predict feminist identity and behavior. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations. doi: 10.1177/1368430216630193.Google Scholar
  38. Rivis, A., Sheeran, P., & Armitage, C. J. (2006). Augmenting the theory of planned behaviour with the prototype/willingness model: Predictive validity of actor versus abstainer prototypes for adolescents’ health-protective and health-risk intentions. British Journal of Health Psychology, 11, 483–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sheeran, P., Gollwitzer, P. M., & Bargh, J. A. (2013). Nonconscious processes and health. Health Psychology, 32, 460.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Siegel, R., Ma, J., Zou, Z., & Jemal, A. (2014). Cancer statistics, 2014. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 64, 9–29.Google Scholar
  41. Simard, E. P., Ward, E. M., Siegel, R., & Jemal, A. (2012). Cancers with increasing incidence trends in the United States: 1999 through 2008. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 62, 118–128.Google Scholar
  42. Smith, C. T., & Ratliff, K. A. (2015). Implicit measures of attitudes. In T. Ortner & F. V. D. Vijver (Eds.), Behavior based assessment in psychology: Going beyond self-report in the personality, affective, motivation, and social domains (pp. 113–132). Boston, MA: Hogrefe.Google Scholar
  43. Todd, J., Kothe, E., Mullan, B., & Monds, L. (2014). Reasoned versus reactive prediction of behaviour: A meta-analysis of the prototype willingness model. Health Psychology Review, 10, 1–24.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. van Lettow, B., de Vries, H., Burdorf, A., & van Empelen, P. (2014). Quantifying the strength of the associations of prototype perceptions with behaviour, behavioural willingness and intentions: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10, 1–19.Google Scholar
  45. Webb, T. L., & Sheeran, P. (2006). Does changing behavioral intentions engender behavior change? A meta-analysis of the experimental evidence. Psychological Bulletin, 132, 249.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. White, K. M., Robinson, N. G., Young, R. M., Anderson, P. J., Hyde, M. K., Greenbank, S., et al. (2008). Testing an extended theory of planned behaviour to predict young people’s sun safety in a high risk area. British Journal of Health Psychology, 13, 435–448.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Wills, T. A., Gibbons, F. X., Gerrard, M., Murry, V. M., & Brody, G. H. (2003). Family communication and religiosity related to substance use and sexual behavior in early adolescence: A test for pathways through self-control and prototype perceptions. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 17, 312–323. doi: 10.1037/0893-164x.17.4.312 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang, M., Qureshi, A. A., Geller, A. C., Frazier, L., Hunter, D. J., & Han, J. (2012). Use of tanning beds and incidence of skin cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology, 30, 1588–1593.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyOhio UniversityAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of FloridaGainesvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations