Dispositional optimism and sleep quality: a test of mediating pathways
- 461 Downloads
Dispositional optimism has been related to beneficial influences on physical health outcomes. However, its links to global sleep quality and the psychological mediators responsible for such associations are less studied. This study thus examined if trait optimism predicted global sleep quality, and if measures of subjective well-being were statistical mediators of such links. A community sample of 175 participants (93 men, 82 women) completed measures of trait optimism, depression, and life satisfaction. Global sleep quality was assessed using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Results indicated that trait optimism was a strong predictor of better PSQI global sleep quality. Moreover, this association was mediated by depression and life satisfaction in both single and multiple mediator models. These results highlight the importance of optimism for the restorative process of sleep, as well as the utility of multiple mediator models in testing distinct psychological pathways.
KeywordsDepression Health Life satisfaction Optimism Sleep
Support for this research was generously provided by Grant Number R21 AG029239 from the National Institute on Aging.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Bert N. Uchino, Matthew Cribbet, Robert G. Kent de Grey, Sierra Cronan, Ryan Trettevik, and Timothy W. Smith declares that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all patients for being included in the study.
- Buysse, D. J., Hall, M. L., Strollo, P. J., Kamarck, T. W., Owens, J., Lee, L., et al. (2008). Relationships between the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and clinical/polysomnographic measures in a community sample. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 4, 563–571.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- DuBois, C. M., Lopez, O. V., Beale, E. E., Healy, B. C., Boehm, J. K., & Huffman, J. C. (2015). Relationships between positive psychological constructs and health outcomes in patients with cardiovascular disease: A systematic review. International Journal of Cardiology, 195, 265–280. doi: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2015.05.121 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Lau, E. Y. Y., Hui, C. H., Cheung, S. F., & Lam, J. (2015). Bidirectional relationship between sleep and optimism with depressive mood as a mediator: A longitudinal study of Chinese working adults. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 79, 428–434. doi: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2015.09.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Lyness, J. M., Noel, T. K., Cox, C., King, D. A., Conwell, Y., & Caine, E. D. (1997). Screening for depression in elderly primary care patients: A comparison of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies—Depression Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Archives of Internal Medicinerchives of Internal Medicine, 157, 449–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Mezick, E. J., Matthews, K. A., Hall, M., Strollo, P. J., Buysse, D. J., Kamarck, T. W., et al. (2008). Influence of race and socioeconomic status on sleep: Pittsburgh SleepSCORE project. Psychosomatic Medicine, 70, 410–416. doi: 10.1097/PSY.0b013e31816fdf21 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Morin, C. M., & Espie, C. A. (2003). Insomnia: A clinician’s guide to assessment and treatment (Vol. 1). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Scheier, M. F., Carver, C. S., & Bridges, M. W. (1994). Distinguishing optimism from neuroticism (and trait anxiety, self-mastery, and self-esteem): A reevaluation of the life orientation test. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 67, 1063–1078. doi: 10.1037/0022-3522.214.171.1243 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Uchino, B. N., Bowen, K., Carlisle, M., & Birmingham, W. (2012a). Psychological pathways linking social support to health outcomes: A visit with the “ghosts” of research past, present, and future. Social Science and Medicine, 74, 949–957. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.11.023 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Uchino, B. N., Cawthon, R. M., Smith, T. W., Light, K. C., McKenzie, J., Carlisle, M., et al. (2012b). Social relationships and health: Is feeling positive, negative, or both (ambivalent) about your social ties related to telomeres? Health Psychology, 31, 789–796. doi: 10.1037/a0026836 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar