Impact of a brief intervention on self-regulation, self-efficacy and physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes
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Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief intervention targeting self-efficacy and self-regulation to increase physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Older adults (Mage = 61.8 ± 6.4) with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome were randomized into a titrated physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online health education course (n = 58). The intervention included walking exercise and theory-based group workshops. Self-efficacy, self-regulation and physical activity were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and a follow-up. Results indicated a group by time effect for self-regulation [F(2,88) = 14.021, p < .001, η 2 = .24] and self-efficacy [F(12,77) = 2.322, p < .05, η 2 = .266] with increases in the intervention group. The intervention resulted in short-term increases in physical activity (d = .76, p < .01), which were partially maintained at the 6-month follow-up (d = .35, p < .01). The intervention increased short-term physical activity but was not successful at maintaining increases in physical activity. Similar intervention effects were observed in self-efficacy and self-regulation. Future research warrants adjusting intervention strategies to increase long-term change.
KeywordsDiabetes Physical activity Older adults Self-regulation Self-efficacy
Research was funded by: National Institute on Aging: F31 AG042232, R01 AG0200118, 5T32AG023480-10; and by the Shahid Khan and Ann Carlson Khan Endowed Professorship. Funding sources had no involvement in research design; data collection, analysis or interpretation; manuscript writing; or decision to submit for publication. Authors have no financial disclosures.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Erin A. Olson and Edward McAuley declare no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed Consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.
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