Impact of a brief intervention on self-regulation, self-efficacy and physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes
- 2.4k Downloads
Despite evidence of the benefits of physical activity, most individuals with type 2 diabetes do not meet physical activity recommendations. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a brief intervention targeting self-efficacy and self-regulation to increase physical activity in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Older adults (Mage = 61.8 ± 6.4) with type 2 diabetes or metabolic syndrome were randomized into a titrated physical activity intervention (n = 58) or an online health education course (n = 58). The intervention included walking exercise and theory-based group workshops. Self-efficacy, self-regulation and physical activity were assessed at baseline, post-intervention, and a follow-up. Results indicated a group by time effect for self-regulation [F(2,88) = 14.021, p < .001, η 2 = .24] and self-efficacy [F(12,77) = 2.322, p < .05, η 2 = .266] with increases in the intervention group. The intervention resulted in short-term increases in physical activity (d = .76, p < .01), which were partially maintained at the 6-month follow-up (d = .35, p < .01). The intervention increased short-term physical activity but was not successful at maintaining increases in physical activity. Similar intervention effects were observed in self-efficacy and self-regulation. Future research warrants adjusting intervention strategies to increase long-term change.
KeywordsDiabetes Physical activity Older adults Self-regulation Self-efficacy
Research was funded by: National Institute on Aging: F31 AG042232, R01 AG0200118, 5T32AG023480-10; and by the Shahid Khan and Ann Carlson Khan Endowed Professorship. Funding sources had no involvement in research design; data collection, analysis or interpretation; manuscript writing; or decision to submit for publication. Authors have no financial disclosures.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
Erin A. Olson and Edward McAuley declare no conflict of interest.
Human and animal rights and Informed Consent
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000. Informed consent was obtained from all participants for being included in the study.
- Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman.Google Scholar
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2011). National diabetes fact sheet: national estimates and general information on diabetes and prediabetes in the United States, 2011. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/diabetes/pubs/pdf/ndfs_2011.pdf
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2013). Press Release: One in five adults meets overall physical activity guidelines. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/media/releases/2013/p0502-physical-activity.html
- Duncan, G. E., Perri, M. G., Theriaque, D. W., Hutson, A. D., Eckel, R. H., & Stacpoole, P. W. (2003). Exercise training, without weight loss, increases insulin sensitivity and postherparin plasma lipase activity in previously sedentary adults. Diabetes Care, 26, 557–562. doi: 10.2337/diacare.26.3.557 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Grundy, S. M., Cleeman, J. I., Daniels, S. R., Donato, K. A., Eckel, R. H., Franklin, B. A., et al. (2005). Diagnosis and management of the metabolic syndrome: An American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute scientific statement. Circulation, 112, 2735–2752.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Luciano, E., Carneiro, E. M., Carvalho, C. R., Carvalheira, J. B., Peres, S. B., Reis, M. A., et al. (2002). Endurance training improves responsiveness to insulin and modulates insulin signaling transduction through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt-1 pathway. European Journal of Endocrinology, 147, 149–157. doi: 10.1530/eje.0.1470149 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mailey, E. L., Gothe, N. P., Wójcicki, T. R., Szabo, A. N., Olson, E. A., Mullen, S. P., et al. (2014). Influence of allowable interruption period on estimates of accelerometer wear time and sedentary time in older adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity, 22(2), 255–260. doi: 10.1123/japa.2013-0021 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matos, A., Ropelle, E. R., Pauli, J. R., Frederico, M. J. S., de Pinho, R. A., Velloso, L. A., & De Souza, C. T. (2010). Acute exercise reverses TRB3 expression in the skeletal muscle and ameliorates whole body insulin sensitivity in diabetic mice. Acta Physiologica, 198, 61–69. doi: 10.1111/j.1748-1716.2009.02031.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McAuley, E., & Blissmer, B. (2000). Self-efficacy determinants and consequences of physical activity. Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 28(2), 85–88.Google Scholar
- McAuley, E., Hall, K. S., Motl, R. W., White, S. M., Wójcicki, T. R., Hu, L., & Doerksen, S. E. (2009). Trajectory of declines in physical activity in community-dwelling older women: Social cognitive influences. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences, 64B(5), 543–550. doi: 10.1093/geronb/gbp049 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- McAuley, E., Lox, C., & Duncan, T. E. (1993). Long-term maintenance of exercise, self-efficacy, and physiologic change in older adults. Journals of Gerontology, Series B: Psychological Sciences, 48(4), 218–224.Google Scholar
- McAuley, E., Mailey, E. L., Mullen, S. P., Szabo, A. N., Wójckicki, T. R., White, S. M., et al. (2011). Growth trajectories of exercise self-efficacy in older adults: Influence of measures and initial status. Health Psychology, 30(1), 75–83. doi: 10.1037/a0021567 PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- McAuley, E., & Mihalko, S. L. (1998). Measuring exercise-related self-efficacy. In J. L. Duda (Ed.), Advances in sport and exercise psychology measurement. Fitness Information Technology: West Virginia.Google Scholar
- Moore, S. M., Charvat, J. M., Gordon, N. H., Pashkow, F., Ribisl, P., Roberts, B. L., & Rocco, M. (2006). Effects of a CHANGE intervention to increase exercise maintenance following cardiac events. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 31, 53–62. doi: 10.1207/s15324796abm3101_9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogers, L. Q., Hopkins-Price, P., Vicari, S., Markwell, S., Pamenter, R., Courneya, K. S., et al. (2009a). Physical activity and health outcomes three months after completing a physical activity behavior change intervention: Persistent and delayed effects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 18, 1410–1418.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Rogers, L. Q., Hopkins-Price, P., Vicari, S., Pamenter, R., Courneya, K. S., Markwell, S., et al. (2009b). A randomized trial to increase physical activity in breast cancer survivors. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41(4), 935–936. doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818e0e1b CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- The LIFE Study Investigators. (2006). Effects of a physical activity intervention on measures of physical performance: Results of the lifestyle interventions and independence for elders pilot (LIFE-P) study. Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences, 61A(11), 1157–1165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar