Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 35, Issue 3, pp 318–333 | Cite as

The effectiveness of a motivational interviewing primary-care based intervention on physical activity and predictors of change in a disadvantaged community

  • Sarah Hardcastle
  • Nicola Blake
  • Martin S. Hagger
Article

Abstract

Little research exists on the impact of behavior change interventions in disadvantaged communities. We conducted a prospective study to explore the effectiveness of motivational interviewing on physical activity change within a deprived community and the social- psychological and motivational predictors of change in physical activity including stage of change, self-efficacy, social support, and variables from self-determination theory and the theory of planned behavior. Five motivational interviewing counsellors recruited 207 patients and offered motivational interviewing sessions to support physical activity behavior change. At 6-months there were significant improvements in physical activity, stage of change, and social support. A dose–response relationship was evident; those who attended 2 or more consultations increased their total physical activity, stage of change and family social support more than those who attended just one. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that number of sessions and change in stage of change predicted 28.4 % of the variance in change in total physical activity and, with social support from friends, 21.0 % of the variance in change walking time. Change in perceived behavioral control and attitudes, friend social support, and number of sessions predicted 16.8 % of the variance in change in vigorous physical activity. Motivational interviewing is an effective approach for promoting physical activity amongst lower socio-economic status groups in the short term. The study demonstrates good translational efficacy, and contributes to a limited number of physical activity interventions targeting low income groups in the UK.

Keywords

Motivational interviewing Physical activity Primary care Socio-economic status Behavior change Health promotion 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors thank Hastings and Rother Primary Care Trust who provided the funding to support the study, the healthcare professionals who recruited patients, the lifestyle change facilitators, and the patients who volunteered to take part in the study.

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1985). From intentions to actions: A theory of planned behavior. In J. Kuhi & J. Beckmann (Eds.), Action-control: From cognition to behavior (pp. 11–39). Heidelberg: Springer.Google Scholar
  2. Amireault, S., Godin, G., Vohl, M., & Perusse, L. (2008). Moderators of the intention behaviour and perceived behavioural control-behaviour relationships for leisure-time physical activity. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Amrhein, P. C., Miller, W. R., Yahne, C. E., Palmer, M., & Fulcher, L. (2003). Client commitment language during motivational interviewing predicts drug use outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 862–878.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Armitage, C. J., & Conner, M. (2001). Efficacy of the theory of planned behaviour: A meta-analytic review. British Journal of Social Psychology, 40, 471–499.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Armstrong, M. J., Mottershead, T. A., Ronksley, P. E., Sigal, R. J., Campbell, T. S., & Hemmelgarn, B. R. (2011). Motivational interviewing to improve weight loss in overweight and/or obese patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Obesity Reviews, 12, 709–723.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bandura, A. (1977). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: FreemanGoogle Scholar
  7. Benbassat, D. O., Dos Reis, P. C., Vandriette, Y. M., De Nutte, N., & Corten, P. (2008). Motivational interviewing increases physical activity in depressed inpatients. European Psychiatry, 23, S299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bennett, J. A., Young, H. M., Nail, L. M., Winters-Stone, K., & Hanson, G. (2008). A telephone-only motivational intervention to increase physical activity in rural adults: A randomised controlled trial. Nursing Research, 57, 24–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bertholet, N., Faouzi, M., Gmel, G., Gaume, J., & Daeppen, J. B. (2011). Change talk sequence during brief motivational intervention, towards or away from drinking. Addiction, 105, 2106–2112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Blair, S. N. (2009). Physical inactivity: The biggest public health problem of the 21st century. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 43, 1–2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Blair, S. N., Dunn, A. L., Marcus, B. H., Carpenter, R. A., & Jaret, P. (2001). Active living everyday: 20 weeks to lifelong vitality. Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  12. Blaxter, M. (2007) Evidence for the effects on inequalities in health of interventions designed to change behaviour. Available online www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/evidencefortheeffectoninequalitiesdesignedtochangebehaviour.pdf
  13. Booth, M. (2000). Assessment of physical activity: An international perspective. Research Quarterly in Exercise and Sport, 71, 114–120.Google Scholar
  14. British Heart Foundation. (2009).UK coronary heart disease statistics 20092010. London: British Heart Foundation.Google Scholar
  15. Brug, J., Spikmans, F., Aartsen, C., Breedveld, B., Bes, R., & Ferreira, I. (2007). Training dietitians in basic motivational interviewing skills results in changes in their counseling style and in lower saturated fat intakes in their patients. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 39, 8–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burke, B. L., Arkowitz, H., & Menchola, M. (2003). The efficacy of motivational interviewing: A meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 843–861.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Burke, V., Beilin, L. W., Cutt, H. E., Mansour, J., & Mori, T. A. (2008). Moderators and mediators of behaviour change in a lifestyle programme for treated hypertensives: A randomized controlled trial (ADAPT). Health Education Research, 23, 583–591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Chatzisarantis, N. L. D., & Hagger, M. S. (2009). Effects of an intervention based on self-determination theory on self-reported leisure-time physical activity participation. Psychology and Health, 24, 29–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Chen, S. M., Creedy, D., Lin, H. S., & Wollin, J. (2011). Effects of a motivational interviewing intervention on self-management, psychological and glycemic outcomes in type 2 diabetics: A randomised controlled trial. International Journal of Nursing Studies. doi: 1016/J.iJnurstu.2011.11.011.
  20. Courneya, K. S., & Bobick, T. M. (2000). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour with the processes and stages of change in the exercise domain. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 1, 41–56.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Craig, C. L., Marshall, A., Sjostrom, M., Bauman, A. E., Booth, M., Ainsworth, B. E., et al. (2003). International physical activity questionnaire: 12 country reliability and validity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 35, 1381–1395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craig, R., Mindell, J., & Hirani, V. (2009). Health survey for England 2008: Physical activity and fitness. Leeds: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.Google Scholar
  23. Deci, E. L., Eghrari, H., Patrick, B. C., & Leone, D. R. (1994). Facilitating internalization: The self-determination theory perspective. Journal of Personality, 62, 119–142.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behaviour. New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
  25. Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2000). The “What” and “Why” of goal pursuits: Human needs and the self-determination of behavior. Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Department of Health. (2004). Choosing health; making healthier choices easier. London: The Stationary Office.Google Scholar
  27. Department of Health. (2009). Be active, be healthy: A plan for getting the nation moving. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  28. DiMarco, I. D., Klein, D. A., Clark, V. L., & Wilson, G. T. (2009). The use of motivational interviewing techniques to enhance the efficacy of guided self-help behavioral weight loss treatment. Eating Behaviors, 10, 134–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Dombrowski, S. U., Sniehotta, F. F., Avenell, A., Johnston, M., MacLennan, G., & Araújo-Soares, A. (2012). Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with additional risk factors: A systematic review. Health Psychology Review, 6, 7–32.Google Scholar
  30. Dunn, A. L. (2009). The effectiveness of physical activity interventions to reduce cardiovascular disease. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 3, 11S–18S.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Dutton, G. R., Martin, P. D., Welsch, M. A., & Brantley, P. J. (2007). Promoting physical activity for low-income minority women in primary care. American Journal of Health Behaviour, 31, 622–631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. East Sussex County Council. (2010). Focus on east sussex 2010 annual monitor. http://www.eastsussexinfigures.org.uk/Documents/LatestFocus.pdf
  33. Emmons, K. M., & Rollnick, S. (2001). Motivational interviewing in health care settings: Opportunities and limitations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 20, 68–74.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Emmons, K. M., Stoddard, A. M., Fletcher, R., Gutheil, C., Suarez, E. G., Lobb, R., et al. (2005). Cancer prevention among working class, multiethnic adults: Results of the healthy directions-health centers study. American Journal of Public Health, 95, 1200–1205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Everson-Rose, S. A., & Lewis, T. T. (2005). Psychosocial factors and cardiovascular diseases. Annual Review of Public Health, 26, 469–500.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Greaves, C. J., Middlebrooke, A., O’Loughlin, L., Holland, S., Poper, J., Steele, A., et al. (2008). Motivational interviewing for modifying diabetes risk: A randomised controlled trial. British Journal of General Practice, 58, 535–540.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Groeneveld, I. F., Proper, K. I., van der Beek, J. A., & van Mechelen, W. (2010). Sustained body weight reduction by an individual based lifestyle intervention for workers in the construction industry at risk for cardiovascular disease: Results of a randomised controlled trial. Preventive Medicine, 51, 240–246.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hagger, M. S. (2009). Theoretical integration in health psychology: Unifying ideas and complimentary explanations. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 189–194.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hagger, M. S., & Chatzisarantis, N. L. D. (2009). Integrating the theory of planned behaviour and self-determination theory in health behaviour: A meta-analysis. British Journal of Health Psychology, 14, 275–302.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Hardcastle, S., Taylor, A., Bailey, M., & Castle, R. (2008). A randomized controlled trial on the effectiveness of a primary health care based counselling intervention on physical activity, diet and CHD risk factors. Patient Education and Counselling, 70, 31–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Harland, J., White, M., Drinkwater, C., Chinn, D., Farr, L., & Howel, D. (1999). The Newcastle exercise project: A randomised controlled trial of methods to promote physical activity in primary care. British Medical Journal, 319, 828.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Hastings and Rother Primary Care Trust. (2008). Improving health, increasing life: 20072008, Director of public health- annual report. East Sussex, Hastings and Rother Primary Care trust.Google Scholar
  43. Helmerhorst, H. J. F., Wijndaele, K., Brage, S., Wareham, N., & Ekelund, U. (2009). Objectively measured sedentary time may predict insulin resistance independent of moderate and vigorous intensity physical activity. Diabetes, 58, 1776–1779.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Huisman, M., Kunst, A. E., Bopp, M., Borgan, J. K., Borrell, C., Costa, G., et al. (2005). Educational inequalities in cause-specific mortality in middle-aged and older men and women in eight western European populations. Lancet, 365, 493–500.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. James, S. A., Hoewyk, J. V., Belli, R. F., Strogatz, D. S., Williams, D. R., & Raghunathan, T. E. (2006). Life-course socioeconomic position and hypertension in African American men: The Pitt county study. American Journal of Public Health, 96, 812–817.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kamphuis, C. B. M., van Lenthe, F. J., Giskes, K., Brug, J., & Machenbach, J. P. (2007). Perceived environmental determinants of physical activity and fruit and vegetable consumption among high and low socioeconomic groups in the Netherlands. Health and Place, 13, 493–503.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Kamphuis, C. B. M., van Lenthe, F. J., Giskes, K., Huisman, M., Brug, J., & Mackenbach, J. P. (2009). Socioeconomic differences in lack of recreational walking among adults: The role of neighbourhood and individual factors. International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 6, 1–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katzmarzyk, P. T. (2009). Sitting time and mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 41, 998–1005.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Keyserling, T. C., Hodge, C. D. S., Jilcott, S. B., Johnston, L. F., Garcia, B. A., Gizlice, Z., et al. (2008). Randomized trial of a clinic based, community-supported lifestyle intervention to improve physical activity and diet: The North Carolina enhanced WISEWOMEN project. Preventive Medicine, 46, 499–510.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Latkin, C. A., & Curry, A. (2003). Stressful neighbourhoods and depression: A prospective study of the impact of neighbourhood disorder. Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, 44, 34–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lewis, B. A., Forsyth, L. H., Pinto, B. M., Bock, B. C., Roberts, M., & Marcus, B. H. (2006). Psychosocial mediators of physical activity in a randomized controlled intervention trial. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28, 193–204.Google Scholar
  52. Lorentzen, C., Ommundsen, Y., Jenum, A. K., & Holma, I. (2007). The Romsas in Motion community intervention: programme exposure and psychosocial mediated relationships to change in stages of change in physical activity. The International Journal of Behavioural Nutrition and Physical Activity, 4, 15–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lowther, M., Mutrie, N., & Scott, E. M. (2002). Promoting physical activity in a socially and economically deprived community: A 12 month randomized control trial of fitness assessment and exercise consultation. Journal of Sport Sciences, 20, 577–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Lynch, J. W., Smith, G. D., Kaplan, G. A., & House, J. S. (2000). Income inequality and mortality: Importance on health of individual income, psychosocial environment, or material conditions. British Medical Journal, 320, 1200–1204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Mackenbach, J. P., Stirbu, I., Roskam, A. R., Schaap, M. M., Menvielle, G., Leinsau, M., et al. (2008). Socioeconomic inequalities in health in 22 European countries. The New England Journal of Medicine, 358, 2468–2481.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Markland, D., Ryan, R. M., Tobin, V. J., & Rollnick, S. (2005). Motivational interviewing and self-determination theory. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 24, 811–831.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markland, D., & Tobin, V. J. (2005). A modification to behavioural regulation in exercise questionnaire to include an assessment of a motivation. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 26, 191–196.Google Scholar
  58. Markland, D., & Vansteenkiste, M. (2007). Self-determination theory and motivational interviewing in exercise. In M. S. Hagger & N. L. D. Chatzisarantis (Eds.), Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in exercise and sport (pp. 167–180). Champaign, Ill: Human Kinetics.Google Scholar
  59. Martins, R. K., & McNeil, D. W. (2009). Review of motivational interviewing in promoting health behaviours. Clinical Psychology Review, 29, 283–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. McAuley, E. (1990). Self-efficacy measures. Unpublished raw data.Google Scholar
  61. McEachan, R. R. C., Conner, M. T., Taylor, N., & Lawton, R. J. (2011). Prospective prediction of health-related behaviors with the theory of planned behavior: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 5, 97–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McNeill, L. H., Kreuter, M. W., & Subramanian, S. V. (2006). Social environment and physical activity: A review of concepts and evidence. Social Science and Medicine, 63, 1011–1022.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Michie, S., Jochelson, K., Markham, W. A., & Bridle, C. (2009). Low income groups and behaviour change interventions: A review of intervention content, effectiveness and theoretical frameworks. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 63, 610–622.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Miller, S. T., & Beech, B. M. (2009). Rural healthcare providers question the practicality of motivational interviewing and report varied physical activity counselling experience. Patient Education and Counselling, 76, 279–282.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Miller, W. R., & Mount, K. A. (2001). A small study of training in motivational interviewing: Does one workshop change clinician and client behaviour? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 29, 457–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Miller, W. R., & Rollnick, S. (2002). Motivational interviewing: preparing people for change (2nd ed.). New York: The Guildford Press.Google Scholar
  67. Moyers, T. B., Martin, T., Manuel, J., Miller, W., & Ernst, D. (2010). Revised global scales: Motivational interviewing treatment integrity 3.1 (MITI 3.1). University of New Mexico: Center on Alcoholism, Substance Abuse and Addictions (CASSA).Google Scholar
  68. Moyers, T. B., Miller, W. R., & Hendrickson, S. M. (2005). How does motivational interviewing work? Therapist interpersonal skill predicts client involvement with motivational interviewing sessions. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73, 590–598.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. (2007). Behaviour change at population, community and individual levels. London: NICE.Google Scholar
  70. NHS East Sussex Downs and Weald. (2009). Joint Strategic Needs Assessment. Lewes: NHS East Sussex Downs and Weald ONS.Google Scholar
  71. O’Loughlin, J., Paradis, G., Gray-Donald, K., & Renaud, L. (1999). The impact of a community-based heart disease prevention program in a low-income, inner-city neighbourhood. American Journal of Public Health, 89, 1819–1826.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Oguz, S., & Knight, J. (2010). Regional economic indicators with a focus on gross disposable household income. Economic and Labour Market Review, 4, 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Orbell, S., Hagger, M. S., Brown, V., & Tidy, J. (2006). Comparing two theories of health behavior: A prospective study of non-completion of treatment following cervical cancer screening. Health Psychology, 25, 604–615.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Orozco, L. J., Buchleitner, A. M., Gimeriez-Perez, G., Rogue, I., Figuls, M., Richter, B., et al. (2008). Exercise or exercise and diet for preventing type 2 diabetes mellitus. The Cochrane Library, 3, 1–3.Google Scholar
  75. Parks, S. E., Housemann, R. A., & Brownson, R. C. (2003). Differential correlates of physical activity in urban and rural adults of various socioeconomic backgrounds in the United States. Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, 57, 29–35.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Parra-Medina, D., Wilcox, S., Wilson, D. K., Addy, C. L., Felton, G., & Poston, M. B. (2010). Heart healthy and ethnically relevant (HHER) lifestyle trial for improving diet and physical activity in underserved African American women. Contemporary Clinical Trials, 31, 92–104.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Prochaska, J. O., & Diclemente, C. C. (1983). Stages and processes of self-change of smoking: Towards an integrative model of change. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 51, 390–395.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Resnicow, K., Jackson, A., Wang, T., De, A. K., McCarthy, F., Dudley, W. N., et al. (2001). A motivational interviewing intervention to increase fruit and vegetable intake through black churches: Results of the eat for life trial. American Journal of Public Health, 9, 1686–1693.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Ridge, K., Treasure, J., Forbes, A., Thomas, S., & Ismail, K. (2012). Themes elicited during motivational interviewing to improve glycaemic control in adults with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Diabetic Medicine, 29, 148–152.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Rohsenow, D. J., Monti, P. M., Martin, R. A., Colby, S. M., & Myers, M. G. (2004). Motivational enhancement and coping skills training for cocaine abusers: Effects on substance abuse outcomes. Addiction, 99, 862–874.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Rollnick, S. (1997). Whither motivational interviewing? Journal of Substance Misuse, 2, 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Rollnick, S., & Miller, W. R. (1995). What is motivational interviewing? Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, 23, 325–334.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Rollnick, S., Miller, W. R., & Butler, C. (2008). Motivational interviewing in Health Care. Helping people change behaviour. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  84. Rosamond, W. D., Ammerman, A. S., Holliday, J. L., Tawney, K. W., Hunt, K. J., Keyserling, T. C., et al. (2000). Cardiovascular disease risk factor intervention in low-income women: The North Carolina WISEWOMAN project. Preventive Medicine, 31, 370–379.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Rubak, S., Sandbaek, A., Lauritzen, T., & Christensen, B. (2005). Motivational interviewing: A systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of General Practice, 55, 305–312.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Ryan, R. M., & Connell, J. P. (1989). Perceived locus of causality and internalization: Examining reasons for acting in two domains. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 749–761.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Saavedra, J. M., Torres, S., Caro, B., Escalante, Y., De la Cruz, E., Duran, M. J., et al. (2008). Relationship between health-related fitness and education and income levels in Spanish Women. Public Health, 122, 794–800.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Sallis, J. F., Grossman, R. M., Pinski, R. B., Patterson, T. L., & Nader, P. R. (1987). The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviours. Preventive Medicine, 16, 825–836.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Sallis, J. F., Saelens, B. E., Frank, L. D., Conway, T. L., Slymen, D. J., Cain, K. L., et al. (2009). Neighbourhood built environment and income: Examining multiple health outcomes. Social Science and Medicine, 68, 1285–1293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Shaikh, A. R., Vinokur, A. D., Yaroch, A. L., Williams, G. C., & Resnicow, K. (2011). Direct and mediated effects of two theoretically based interventions to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables in the healthy body healthy spirit trial. Health Education and Behaviour, 38, 492–501.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Stamatakis, E., & Chaudhury, M. (2008). Temporal trends in adults’ sports participation patterns in England between 1997 and 2006: The health survey for England. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 42, 901–908.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Steptoe, A. L., Perkins-Porras, E. A., McKay, C., Rink, E., Hilton, S., & Cappuccio, F. P. (2003). Behavioural counselling to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables in low income adults: Randomised trial. British Medical Journal, 326, 855–858.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Sykes, C. M., & Marks, D. F. (2001). Effectiveness of a cognitive behaviour therapy self-help programme for smokers in London. Health Promotion International, 16, 255–260.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. The Health and Social Care Information Centre. (2010). Statistics on obesity, physical activity and diet. Leeds: The Health and Social Care Information Centre.Google Scholar
  95. The IPAQ Group. (2012). International physical activity questionnaire. Retrieved March 1, 2012, from http://www.ipaq.ki.se/
  96. Umstattd, M. R., Saunders, R., Wilcox, R., Volois, R. F., & Dowda, M. (2006). Correlates of self-regulation for physical activity among older adults. American Journal of Health Behaviour, 30, 710–719.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Walpole, B., Dettmer, E., Morrongiello, B., McCrindle, B., & Hamilton, J. (2011). Motivational Interviewing as an intervention to increase adolescent self-efficacy and promote weight loss: Methodology and design. BMC Public Health, 11, 459.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Warburton, D. E. R., Nicol, C. W., & Bredin, S. S. D. (2006). Health benefits of physical activity: The evidence. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 174, 801–809.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. West, D. S., DiLillo, V., Bursac, Z., Gore, S. A., & Greene, P. G. (2007). Motivational interviewing improves weight loss in women with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care, 30, 1081–1087.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Whittemore, R., Melkus, G., Wagner, J., Dziura, J., Northrup, V., & Grey, M. (2009). Translating the diabetes prevention program to primary care: A pilot study. Nursing Research, 58, 2–12.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Williams, G. C. (2002). Improving patients’ health through supporting the autonomy of patients and providers. In E. L. Deci & R. M. Ryan (Eds.), Handbook of self-determination research (pp. 233–254). Rochester, NY: University of Rochester Press.Google Scholar
  102. Williams, G. C., Cox, E. M., Kouides, R., & Deci, E. L. (1999). Presenting the facts about smoking to adolescents: The effects of an autonomy supportive style. Archives of Paediatrics and Adolescent Medicine, 153, 959–964.Google Scholar
  103. Wolin, K. Y., Yan, Y., Colditz, G. A., & Lee, I. M. (2009). Physical activity and colon cancer prevention: A meta- analysis. British Journal of Cancer, 100, 611–616.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Wood, D. A., Kotseva, K., Connolly, S., Jennings, C., Mead, A., Jones, J., et al. (2008). Nurse-coordinated multidisciplinary, family based cardiovascular disease prevention programme for patients with coronary heart disease and asymptomatic individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease: A paired, cluster-randomised controlled trial. The Lancet, 371, 1999–2012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Yancey, A. K., Ory, M. G., & Davis, S. M. (2006). Dissemination of physical activity promotion interventions in underserved populations. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31, S82–S91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sarah Hardcastle
    • 1
  • Nicola Blake
    • 2
  • Martin S. Hagger
    • 3
  1. 1.Chelsea SchoolUniversity of BrightonEastbourneUK
  2. 2.Hastings and Rother Primary Care TrustEast SussexUK
  3. 3.School of Psychology and Speech PathologyCurtin UniversityPerthAustralia

Personalised recommendations