Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Medicine

, Volume 34, Issue 2, pp 112–119 | Cite as

Somatic items in the assessment of depressive symptoms in pediatric patients with diabetes

  • Sunita M. Stewart
  • Alex Simmons
  • Perrin C. White
Article

Abstract

Depression inventories contain somatic items which may be related to disease rather than to depression in individuals with chronic illness. Adolescents with type 1 diabetes (n = 151) and medically well controls (n = 68) completed the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) which includes somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms. Diabetes patients reported higher levels of all depressive symptoms than controls; the discrepancy was equivalent for somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms. For diabetes patients, somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms did not correlate with indices of disease control except for number of diabetes-related hospitalizations, where the correlations were equivalent. In participants with diabetes and in controls, somatic and cognitive/affective symptoms were strongly correlated with each other. These findings were not moderated by level of depressive symptoms. Our study suggests that the somatic items on the CES-D do not confound the measurement of depressive symptoms in young people with type 1 diabetes.

Keywords

Somatic symptoms Depression Type 1 diabetes Adolescents 

References

  1. Anderson, R. J., Freedland, K. E., Clouse, R. E., & Lustman, P. J. (2001). The prevalence of comorbid depression in adults with diabetes: A meta-analysis. Diabetes Care, 24, 1069–1078.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barsky, A. J., Goodson, J. D., Lane, R. S., & Cleary, P. D. (1988). The amplification of somatic symptoms. Psychosomatic Medicine, 50, 510–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Ward, C. H., Mendelson, M., Mock, J., & Erbaugh, J. (1961). An inventory for measuring depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 4, 561–571.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blatt, S. J., D’Afflitti, J. P., & Quinlan, D. M. (1976). Experiences of depression in normal adults. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 383–389.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Canning, E. H., & Kelleher, K. J. (1994). Performance of screening tools for mental health problems in chronically ill children. Archives of Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, 148, 272–278.Google Scholar
  6. Garrison, C. Z., Addy, C. L., Jackson, K. L., McKeown, R. E., & Waller, J. L. (1991). The CES-D as a screen for depression and other psychiatric disorders in adolescents. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 30, 646–691.Google Scholar
  7. Gonder-Frederick, L. A., Zrebiec, J. F., Bauchowitz, A. U., Ritterband, L. M., Magee, J. C., Cox, D. J., et al. (2009). Cognitive function is disrupted by both hypo—and hyperglycemia in school-aged children with type 1 diabetes: A field study. Diabetes Care, 32, 1001–1006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grey, M., Whittemore, R., & Tamborlane, W. (2001). Depression in type 1 diabetes in children: Natural history and correlates. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 907–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hirschfeld, M. A., & Cross, C. K. (1982). Epidemiology of affective disorders. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 35–46.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Joiner, T. E., Walker, R. L., Pettit, J. W., Perez, M., & Cukrowicz, K. C. (2005). Evidence-based assessment of depression in adults. Psychological Assessment, 17, 267–277.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kandel, D. B., & Davies, M. (1986). Adult sequelae of adolescent depressive symptoms. Archives of General Psychiatry, 43, 255–262.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Kodl, C. T., & Seaquist, E. R. (2008). Cognitive dysfunction and diabetes mellitus. Endocrinology Review, 29, 494–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kovacs, M. (1992). Children’s Depression Inventory (CDI). New York: MH Systems.Google Scholar
  14. Kovacs, M., Feinberg, T., Crouse-Novak, M., Paulauskas, S., & Finkelstein, R. (1984). Depressive disorders in childhood. Archives of General Psychiatry, 41, 229–237.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Lawrence, J. M., Standiford, D. A., Loots, B., et al. (2006). Prevalence and correlates of depressed mood among youth with diabetes: The SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth study. Pediatrics, 117, 1348–1358.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Lewinsohn, P. M., Hops, H., Roberts, R. E., Seeley, J. R., & Andrews, J. A. (1993). Adolescent psychopathology: I. Prevalence and incidence of Depression and other DSM–III–R disorders in high school students. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 102, 133–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Lewinsohn, P. M., Solomon, A., Seeley, J. R., & Zeiss, A. M. (2000). Clinical implications of “subthreshold” depressive symptoms. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 109, 345–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lustman, P., Freedland, K., Carney, R., Hong, B., & Clouse, R. (1992). Similarity of depression in diabetic and psychiatric patients. Psychosomatic Medicine, 54, 602–611.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Lustman, P. J., Clouse, R. E., Griffith, L. S., Carney, R. E., & Freedland, K. (1997). Screening for depression in diabetes using the Beck Depression Inventory. Psychosomatic Medicine, 59, 24–31.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Naguib, J., Kulinskaya, E., Lomax, C. L., & Garralda, M. E. (2009). Neuro-cognitive performance in children with type 1 diabetes: A meta-analysis. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 34, 271–282.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Nakajima, H., Kaneita, Y., Yokoyama, E., Harano, S., Tamaki, T., Ibuka, E., et al. (2008). Association between sleep duration and hemoglobin A1c level. Sleep Medicine, 9, 745–752.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Radloff, L. S. (1977). The CES-D scale: A self-report depression scale for research in the general population. Applied Psychological Measurement, 1, 385–401.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Radloff, L. S. (1991). The use of the Center for Epidemiological Studies—Depression Scale in adolescents and young adults. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 20, 149–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rushton, J. L., Forcier, M., & Schechtman, R. M. (2002). Epidemiology of depressive symptoms in the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 41, 199–205.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Shemesh, E., Yehuda, R., Rockmore, L., Shneider, B. L., Emre, S., Bartell, A. S., et al. (2005). Assessment of depression in medically ill children presenting to pediatric specialty clinics. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 44, 1249–1257.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Stewart, S. M., Lewinsohn, P., Lee, P. W. H., Ho, L. M., Kennard, B. D., Hughes, C. W., et al. (2002). Symptom patterns in depression and “subthreshold” depression among adolescents in Hong Kong and the United States. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 33, 559–576.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Stewart, S. M., Rao, U., Emslie, G., Klein, D., & White, P. (2005). Depressive symptoms predict hospitalization in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Pediatrics, 115, 1315–1319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Strober, M., & Carlson, G. (1982). Bipolar illness in adolescents with major depression: Clinical, genetic, and psychopharmacologic predictors in a three-to-four-year prospective follow-up investigation. Archives of General Psychiatry, 39, 549–555.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Varni, J. W., Limbers, C. A., Bryant, W. P., & Wilson, D. P. (2009). The PedsQL multidimensional fatigue scale in type 1 diabetes. Pediatric Diabetes, 10, 321–328.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sunita M. Stewart
    • 1
    • 2
  • Alex Simmons
    • 2
  • Perrin C. White
    • 3
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA
  2. 2.Department of PsychiatryChildren’s Medical Center DallasDallasUSA
  3. 3.Department of PediatricsUniversity of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at DallasDallasUSA
  4. 4.Division of EndocrinologyChildren’s Medical Center DallasDallasUSA

Personalised recommendations