Advertisement

Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 20, Issue 1, pp 15–32 | Cite as

Indirect Effects of Functional Communication Training on Non-Targeted Disruptive Behavior

  • Kelly M. Schieltz
  • David P. Wacker
  • Jay W. Harding
  • Wendy K. Berg
  • John F. Lee
  • Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau
  • Jayme Mews
  • Muška Ibrahimović
Original Paper

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of functional communication training (FCT) on the occurrence of non-targeted disruptive behavior. The 10 participants were preschool-aged children with developmental disabilities who engaged in both destructive (property destruction, aggression, self-injury) and disruptive (hand flapping, spinning in circles, shrill laughter, screaming, crying) behaviors. Only destructive behavior was targeted for the functional analyses and FCT, but data were also collected on disruptive behaviors. All procedures were conducted in the participants’ homes by their mothers with investigator coaching. Phase 1 consisted of conducting a functional analysis within a multielement design. Phase 2 consisted of conducting FCT with demand fading and repeated extinction baselines within a reversal design. Single-case data are provided for 3 participants, and summary data are provided for all 10 participants. Results of phase 1 showed that all participants’ destructive and disruptive behavior was maintained, at least in part, by negative reinforcement. Results of phase 2 showed that both destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behavior occurred at lower levels during FCT when compared to the functional analysis demand condition and baseline conditions, suggesting that FCT was effective in decreasing both target destructive behavior and non-targeted disruptive behaviors.

Keywords

Functional analysis Functional communication training Destructive behavior Developmental disabilities Long-term treatment 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Grant RO1- HD029402 from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development of the National Institutes of Health. The opinions expressed herein do not necessarily reflect the position of policy of that agency. The authors express our appreciation to Agnes DeRaad for assistance with manuscript preparation.

References

  1. Asmus, J. M., Ringdahl, J. E., Sellers, J. A., Call, N. A., Andelman, M. S., & Wacker, D. P. (2004). Use of a short-term inpatient model to evaluate aberrant behavior: Outcome data summaries from 1996 to 2001. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 37, 283–304.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berg, W. K., Wacker, D. P., Harding, J. W., Ganzer, J., & Barretto, A. (2007). An evaluation of multiple dependent variables across distinct classes of antecedent stimuli pre and post functional communication training. Journal of Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention, 3(4)–4(1), 305–333.Google Scholar
  3. Borrero, C. S. W., & Borrero, J. C. (2008). Descriptive and experimental analyses of potential precursors to problem behavior. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 41, 83–96.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carr, E. G., & Durand, V. M. (1985). Reducing behavior problems through functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 18, 111–126.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Derby, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W., DeRaad, A., Ulrich, S., Asmus, J., et al. (1997). The long-term effects of functional communication training in home settings. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 30(3), 507–531.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Durand, V. M. (1999). Functional communication training using assistive devices: Recruiting natural communities of reinforcement. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 247–267.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Durand, V. M., & Carr, E. G. (1987). Social influences on “self-stimulatory” behavior: Analysis and treatment application. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 20, 119–132.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fisher, W. W., Kuhn, D. E., & Thompson, R. H. (1998). Establishing discriminative control of responding using functional and alternative reinforcers during functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 543–560.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Geiger, K. B., Carr, J. E., & LeBlanc, L. A. (2010). Function-based treatments for escape maintained problem behavior: A treatment selection model for practicing behavior analysts. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 3, 22–32.Google Scholar
  10. Hagopian, L. P., Fisher, W. W., Thibault Sullivan, M., Acquisto, J., & LeBlanc, L. A. (1998). Effectiveness of functional communication training with and without extinction and punishment: A summary of 21 inpatient cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 211–235.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Harding, J. W., Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Lee, J. F., & Dolezal, D. (2009). Conducting functional communication training in home settings: A case study and recommendations for practitioners. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 2, 21–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Horner, R. H., & Day, H. M. (1991). The effects of response efficiency on functionally equivalent competing behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 24, 719–732.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kurtz, P. F., Chin, M. D., Huete, J. M., Tarbox, R. S. F., O’Connor, J. T., Paclawskyj, T. R., et al. (2003). Functional analysis and treatment of self-injurious behavior in young children: A summary of 30 cases. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 36, 205–219.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lalli, J. S., Mace, F. C., Wohn, T., & Livezey, K. (1995). Identification and modification of a response-class hierarchy. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 28, 551–559.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Mace, F. C., & Roberts, M. L. (1993). Factors affecting selection of behavioral interventions. In J. Reichle & D. P. Wacker (Eds.), Communicative alternatives to challenging behavior: integrating functional assessment and intervention strategies (Vol. 3, pp. 113–133). Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brookes.Google Scholar
  16. Nevin, J. A., & Wacker, D. P. (in press). Response strength and persistence. In G. J. Madden (Ed.), APA handbook of behavior analysis. Washington, DC: APA Books.Google Scholar
  17. Parrish, J. M., Cataldo, M. F., Kolko, D. J., Neef, N. A., & Egel, A. L. (1986). Experimental analysis of response covariation among compliant and inappropriate behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 19, 241–254.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Richman, D. M., Wacker, D. P., Asmus, J. M., Casey, S. D., & Andelman, M. (1999). Further analysis of problem behavior in response class hierarchies. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 269–283.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Richman, D. M., Wacker, D. P., & Winborn, L. (2001). Response efficiency during functional communication training: Effects of effort on response allocation. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 34, 73–76.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Roane, H. S., Vollmer, T. R., Ringdahl, J. E., & Marcus, B. A. (1998). Evaluation of a brief stimulus preference assessment. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 605–620.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Schieltz, K. M., Wacker, D. P., Harding, J. W., Berg, W. K., Lee, J. F., & Padilla Dalmau, Y. C. (2010). An evaluation of manding across functions prior to functional communication training. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 22, 131–147.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Smith, R. G., & Churchill, R. M. (2002). Identification of environmental determinants of behavior disorders through functional analysis of precursor behaviors. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 125–136.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Tiger, J. H., Hanley, G. P., & Bruzek, J. (2008). Functional communication training: A review and practical guide. Behavior Analysis in Practice, 1, 16–23.Google Scholar
  24. Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., & Harding, J. W. (2004). Maintenance effects of functional communication training. Rockville, MD: Department of Health and Human Services, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.Google Scholar
  25. Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Harding, J. W., Barretto, A., Rankin, B., & Ganzer, J. (2005). Treatment effectiveness, stimulus generalization, and acceptability to parents of functional communication training. Educational Psychology, 25, 233–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Harding, J. W., & Cooper-Brown, L. J. (2009a). Matching treatment to the function of destructive behavior. In P. Reed (Ed.), Behavioral theories and interventions for autism (pp. 3–21). New York: Nova Science Publishers.Google Scholar
  27. Wacker, D. P., Berg, W. K., Harding, J. W., Derby, K. M., Asmus, J. M., & Healy, A. (1998). Evaluation and long-term treatment of aberrant behavior displayed by young children with disabilities. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 19, 260–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Wacker, D. P., Harding, J. W., & Berg, W. K. (2009b). Functional communication training intervention. In A. Fitzer & P. Sturmey (Eds.), Language and autism (pp. 299–320). Austin, TX: Pro-ed.Google Scholar
  29. Wacker, D. P., Steege, M. W., Northup, J., Sasso, G., Berg, W., Reimers, T., et al. (1990). A component analysis of functional communication training across three topographies of severe behavior problems. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 23, 417–429.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Winborn, L., Wacker, D. P., Richman, D. M., Asmus, J., & Geier, D. (2002). Assessment of mand selection for functional communication training packages. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 35, 295–298.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Winborn-Kemmerer, L., Ringdahl, J. E., Wacker, D. P., & Kitsukawa, K. (2009). A demonstration of individual preference for novel mands during functional communication training. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 42, 185–189.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Kelly M. Schieltz
    • 1
    • 2
  • David P. Wacker
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jay W. Harding
    • 1
    • 2
  • Wendy K. Berg
    • 1
    • 2
  • John F. Lee
    • 1
    • 2
  • Yaniz C. Padilla Dalmau
    • 1
    • 2
  • Jayme Mews
    • 1
    • 2
  • Muška Ibrahimović
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.The University of IowaIowa CityUSA
  2. 2.Center for Disabilities and DevelopmentIowa CityUSA

Personalised recommendations