Journal of Behavioral Education

, Volume 16, Issue 2, pp 155–189 | Cite as

A Field-Tested Task Analysis for Creating Single-Subject Graphs Using Microsoft® Office Excel

  • Ya-yu Lo
  • Moira Konrad
Original Paper


Creating single-subject (SS) graphs is challenging for many researchers and practitioners because it is a complex task with many steps. Although several authors have introduced guidelines for creating SS graphs, many users continue to experience frustration. The purpose of this article is to minimize these frustrations by providing a field-tested task analysis for creating SS graphs using Microsoft® Office Excel. Results from the field test are presented and the task analysis, which includes steps for creating a variety of SS graphs, is provided. The article includes various illustrations, a list of prerequisite skills, tips, and troubleshooting items.


Single-subject graphs Single-subject design Graphic presentation Task analysis Software 



We wish to thank Gloria Campbell-Whatley, David W. Test, and Wendy M. Wood for their kindness to allow us to solicit feedback from them and their students attending Spring 2005 courses of SPED 4270, 5270, and RSCH 7113/8113 at The University of North Carolina at Charlotte. Thanks also are extended to anonymous reviewers as well as a number of students for their constructive feedback on the manuscript.

Supplementary material


  1. Alberto, P. A., & Troutman, A. C. (2006). Applied behavior analysis for teachers, 7th ed. Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  2. Carr, J. E., & Burkholder, E. O. (1998). Creating single-subject design graphs with Microsoft Excel. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 31, 245–251.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cooper, J. O., Heron, T. E., & Heward, W. L. (1987). Applied behavior analysis. Columbus, OH: Merrill.Google Scholar
  4. Hillman, H. L., & Miller, L. K. (2004). Designing multiple baseline graphs using Microsoft Excel. The Behavior Analyst Today, 5, 372–387.Google Scholar
  5. Horner, R. H., Carr, E. G., Halle, J., McGee, G., Odom, S., & Wolery, M. (2005). The use of single-subject research to identify evidence-based practice in special education. Exceptional Children, 71, 165–179.Google Scholar
  6. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis. (2000). Manuscript preparation checklist. Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis, 32, 514.Google Scholar
  7. Moran, D. J., & Hirschbine, B. (2002). Constructing single-subject reversal design graphs using Microsoft ExcelTM: A comprehensive tutorial. The Behavior Analyst Today, 3, 179–187.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Special Education and Child Development, College of EducationUniversity of North Carolina at CharlotteCharlotteUSA
  2. 2.Special Education Program, School of Physical Activity and Educational ServicesThe Ohio State UniversityColumbusUSA

Personalised recommendations