Journal of Bioenergetics and Biomembranes

, Volume 47, Issue 3, pp 223–234 | Cite as

The nuclear encoded subunits gamma, delta and epsilon from the shrimp mitochondrial F1-ATP synthase, and their transcriptional response during hypoxia

  • Oliviert Martinez-Cruz
  • Aldo Arvizu-Flores
  • Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo
  • Adriana Muhlia-Almazan


The mitochondrial FOF1 ATP synthase produces ATP in a reaction coupled to an electrochemical proton gradient generated by the electron transfer chain. The enzyme also hydrolyzes ATP according to the energy requirements of the organism. Shrimp need to overcome low oxygen concentrations in water and other energetic stressors, which in turn lead to mitochondrial responses. The aim of this study was to characterize the full-length cDNA sequences of three subunits that form the central stalk of the F1 catalytic domain of the ATP synthase of the white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and their deduced proteins. The effect of hypoxia on shrimp was also evaluated by measuring changes in the mRNA amounts of these subunits. The cDNA sequences of the nucleus-encoded ATPγ, ATPδ and ATPε subunits are 1382, 477 and 277 bp long, respectively. The three deduced amino acid sequences exhibited highly conserved regions when compared to homologous sequences, and specific substitutions found in shrimp subunits are discussed through an homology structural model of F1 ATP-synthase that included the five deduced proteins, which confirm their functional structures and specific characteristics from the cognate complex of ATP synthases. Genes expression was evaluated during hypoxia-reoxygenation, and resulted in a generalized down-regulation of the F1 subunits and no coordinated changes were detected among these five subunits. The reduced mRNA levels suggest a mitochondrial response to an oxidative stress event, similar to that observed at ischemia-reperfusion in mammals. This model analysis and responses to hypoxia-reoxygenation may help to better understand additional mitochondrial adaptive mechanisms.


Genes F1 ATP-synthase Nuclear subunits Hypoxia Shrimp 



We thank Sandra Araujo Bernal for technical support and to Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACYT, National Council for Research and Technology, Mexico) for grant 133174 to AMA and for a graduate scholarship to OMC.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Oliviert Martinez-Cruz
    • 1
  • Aldo Arvizu-Flores
    • 1
  • Rogerio R. Sotelo-Mundo
    • 2
  • Adriana Muhlia-Almazan
    • 2
  1. 1.Universidad de SonoraHermosilloMexico
  2. 2.Centro de Investigacion en Alimentacion y Desarrollo (CIAD), A.CHermosilloMexico

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