Preferential Energy- and Potential-Dependent Accumulation of Cisplatin–Gutathione Complexes in Human Cancer Cell Lines (GLC4 and K562): A Likely Role of Mitochondria
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cis-Diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (CDDP) is an important chemotherapeutic agent used in the treatment of a wide variety of solid tumors. We have recently shown that aquated forms of cisplatin (aqua-Pt) rapidly accumulate in K562 and GLC4 cultured cells, in comparison to CDDP. Thus, when cells are incubated with aquated forms of cisplatin a gradient of concentration is observed after a short time, approximately 40 min, with an intracellular concentration of aqua-Pt of 20–30 times higher than that of extracellular aqua-Pt. The same gradient of concentration is observed when cells are incubated with CDDP but it takes a longer time, i.e., about 24 h. Therefore, the question arises as to the identity of the intracellular sites of accumulation of aqua-Pt. Using several agents to modulate membrane potential, acidic compartment pH and/or ATP level, we obtained evidence that aqua-Pt may accumulate rapidly inside mitochondria as this accumulation is energy- and membrane-potential-dependent. However, aqua-Pt complexes are not characterized by a delocalized charge and a lipophilic character that would permit their movement through the inner membrane. Therefore, it is suggested that intracellular aqua-Pt reacts rapidly with glutathione with the resultant complex being transported inside the mitochondria via one of the known glutathione transporters, i.e., dicarboxylate and/or 2-oxoglutarate transporters present in the inner membrane.
KeywordsCisplatin Mitochondria Glutathione Accumulation
cis-diammine-dichloro-platinum(II) or cisplatin
once deprotonated glutathione
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