The Development, Factor Structure, and Validation of the Self-concept and Identity Measure (SCIM): A Self-Report Assessment of Clinical Identity Disturbance
- 798 Downloads
Clinically relevant identity disturbance, rather than more normative identity confusion, is a construct that has received limited empirical attention. This relative lack of empirical research is surprising, given that identity disturbance is a criterion for BPD, among the proposed features of all DSM-5 personality disorders, and may also be relevant for many other psychiatric diagnoses. The nomenclature used to describe identity-related constructs is currently unstandardized and many theorists have described overlapping concepts. Thus, there is a need to operationalize identity problems and improve measurement of this important construct. In this article we report the results of two studies that establish the psychometric properties and factor structure of the Self-Concept and Identity Measure (SCIM). The SCIM is a brief, self-report scale designed to assess dimensions of identity (healthy and disturbed) among adults. Participants were recruited through a psychology department subject pool (Study 1; n = 536) and also through Amazon’s Mechanical Turk Website (Study 2; n = 470). An exploratory factor analysis of Study 1 data revealed a 3-factor structure. A confirmatory factor analysis validated the 3-factor structure in the community sample recruited for Study 2. Results indicate that the SCIM is correlated with emotion dysregulation, Borderline Personality Disorder, depression, and other measures of psychopathology. Scores on the SCIM yielded high internal consistency (Cronbach’s α = 0.89), test–retest reliability (α = 0.93, r = 0.88; intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.88), and adequate construct validity. The SCIM appears to produce valid and reliable test scores, with promising applications for clinical research and practice.
KeywordsIdentity disturbance Psychopathology Emotion dysregulation Assessment Factor analysis
Support for these studies came from institutional start-up funds provided to Dr. Sheila E. Crowell by the University of Utah. The authors would like to acknowledge Dr. Jonathan Butner for statistical consultation and the experiment participants.
Conflict of Interest
Erin A. Kaufman declares no conflict of interest; Jenny M. Cundiff declares no conflict of interest; Sheila E. Crowell declares no conflict of interest.
All experimental procedures were approved by the Institutional Review Board at the University of Utah. The manuscript states that informed consent was obtained from all participants.
- Arbuckle, J. L. (2009). Amos 18 user’s guide. Crawfordville: Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
- Ball, L., & Chandler, M. J. (1989). Identity formation in suicidal and nonsuicidal youth: the role of self-continuity. Development and Psychopathology, 1, 257–275. doi: 10.1017/S0954579400000444.
- Berzonsky, M. D. (1990). Self-construction over the life-span: A process perspective on identity formation. In G. J. Neimeyer & R. A. Neimeyer (Eds.), Advances in personal construct psychology: A research annual (Vol. 1, pp. 155–186). US: Elsevier Science/JAI Press.Google Scholar
- Blaney, P. H., & Millon, T. (2009). Oxford textbook of psychopathology (2nd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Chabrol, H., & Leichsenring, F. (2006). Borderline personality organization and psychopathic traits in nonclinical adolescents: relationships of identity diffusion, primitive defense mechanisms and reality testing with callousness and impulsivity traits. Bulletin of the Menninger Clinic, 70, 160–170. doi: 10.1521/bumc.2006.70.2.160.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Comrey, A. L., & Lee, H. B. (1992). A first course in factor analysis (2nd ed.). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
- Crawford, T. N., Cohen, P., Johnson, J. G., Sneed, J. R., & Brook, J. S. (2004). The course and psychosocial correlates of personality disorder symptoms in adolescence: Erikson’s developmental theory revisited. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 33, 373–387. doi: 10.1023/B:JOYO.0000037631.87018.9d.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Crowell, S. E., Beauchaine, T. P., & Linehan, M. M. (2009). A biosocial developmental model of borderline personality: elaborating and extending Linehan’s theory. Psychological Bulletin, 135, 495–510.Google Scholar
- Davies, D. (2010). Child development: A practitioner’s guide (3rd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Derogatis, L. R., & Lazarus, L. (1994). SCL-90—R, Brief Symptom Inventory, and matching clinical rating scales. In M. E. Maruish (Ed.), The use of psychological testing for treatment planning and outcome assessment (pp. 217–248). Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
- Erikson, E. H. (1968). Identity, youth and crisis. Oxford: Norton & Co.Google Scholar
- Gergen, K. J. (1991). The saturated self: Dilemmas of identity in contemporary life. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
- Goth, K., Foelsch, P., Susanne, S.-M., Birkhölzer, M., Jung, E., Pick, O., & Schmeck, K. (2012). Assessment of identity development and identity diffusion in adolescence - Theoretical basis and psychometric properties of the self-report questionnaire AIDA. Child And Adolescent Psychiatry And Mental Health, 6, 27. doi: 10.1186/1753-2000-6-27.CrossRefPubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Harter, S. (1997). The personal self in social context: Barriers to authenticity. In R. D. Ashmore & L. J. Jussim (Eds.), Self and identity: Fundamental issues (pp. 81–105). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (1998). The development of self-representations. In N. Eisenberg & W. Damon (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology (Social, emotional, and personality development 5th ed., Vol. 3, pp. 553–617). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
- Harter, S. (2006). Self-processes and developmental psychopathology. In D. Cicchetti & D. J. Cohen (Eds.), Developmental psychopathology, Vol 1: Theory and method (2nd ed., pp. 370–418). Hoboken: John Wiley & Sons Inc.Google Scholar
- Heard, H. L., & Linehan, M. M. (1993). Problems of self and borderline personality disorder: A dialectical behavioral analysis. In Z. V. Segal & S. J. Blatt (Eds.), The self in emotional distress: Cognitive and psychodynamic perspectives (pp. 301–333). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Henry-Edwards, S., Humeniuk, R., Ali, R., Poznyak, V., & Monteiro, M. (2003). The Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST): Guidelines for use in primary care (Draft Version 1.1 for Field Testing), Geneva.Google Scholar
- Inder, M. L., Crowe, M. T., Moor, S., Luty, S. E., Carter, J. D., & Joyce, P. R. (2008). “I actually don’t know who I am”: the impact of bipolar disorder on the development of self. Psychiatry: Interpersonal and Biological Processes, 71, 123–133.Google Scholar
- Jones, R. M. (1992). Ego identity and adolescent problem behavior. In G. R. Adams, T. P. Gullotta & R. Montemayor (Eds.), Adolescent identity formation (pp. 216–233). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Jöreskog, K. G., & Sörbom, D. (1993). LISREL 8: Structural equation modeling with the SIMPLIS command language. Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
- Linehan, M. M. (1993). Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Livesley, W. J. (2006). General assessment of personality disorder (GAPD). Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
- Lynam, D. R., & Widiger, T. A. (2001). Using the five-factor model to represent the DSM-IV personality disorders: an expert consensus approach. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 110, 401–412. doi: 10.1037/0021-843X.110.3.401.
- Marcia, J. E. (1986). Clinical implications of the identity status approach within psychosocial developmental theory. Cadernos de Consulta Psicologica, 2, 23–34.Google Scholar
- Marcia, J. E. (1994). The empirical study of ego identity. In H. A. Bosma, T. G. Graafsma, H. D. Grotevant & D. J. de Levita (Eds.), Identity and development: An interdisciplinary approach (pp. 67–80). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc.Google Scholar
- Marsh, H. W., Wen, Z., & Hau, K. (2004). Structural equation models of latent interactions: evaluation of alternative estimation strategies and indicator construction. Psychological Methods, 9, 275–300. doi: 10.1037/1082-989X.9.3.275.
- Meares, R., Gerull, F., Stevenson, J., & Korner, A. (2011). Is self disturbance the core of borderline personality disorder? An outcome study of borderline personality factors. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 45, 214–222. doi: 10.3109/00048674.2010.551280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Millon, T., & Simonsen, E. (2010). A précis of psychopathological history. In T. Millon, R. F. Krueger, & E. Simonsen (Eds.), Contemporary directions in psychopathology: Scientific foundations of the DSM-V and ICD-11 (pp. 3–52). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Rawsthorne, L. J., & Ilardi, B. (1997). Trait self and true self: cross-role variation in the Big-Five personality traits and its relations with psychological authenticity and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 73, 1380–1393. doi: 10.1037/0022-35188.8.131.520.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stern, B. L., Caligor, E., Clarkin, J. F., Critchfield, K. L., Horz, S., MacCornack, V., & Kernberg, O. F. (2010). Structured Interview of Personality Organization (STIPO): preliminary psychometrics in a clinical sample. Journal of Personality Assessment, 92, 35–44. doi: 10.1080/00223890903379308.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Talley, A. E., Tomko, R. L., Littlefield, A. K., Trull, T. J., & Sher, K. J. (2011). The influence of general identity disturbance on reports of lifetime substance use disorders and related outcomes among sexual minority adults with a history of substance use. Psychology Of Addictive Behaviors: Journal Of The Society Of Psychologists In Addictive Behaviors, 25, 530–541. doi: 10.1037/a0023022.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Verheul, R., Andrea, H., Berghout, C. C., Dolan, C., Busschbach, J. V., & van der Kroft, P. A. (2008). Severity Indices of Personality Problems (SIPP-118): development, factor structure, reliability, and validity. Psychological Assessment, 20(1), 23–34. doi: 10.1037/1040-35184.108.40.206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Westen, D., & Heim, A. K. (2003). Disturbances of self and identity in personality disorders. In M. R. Leary & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), Handbook of self and identity (pp. 643–664). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Wheeler, H. A., Adams, G. R., & Keating, L. (2001). Binge eating as a means for evading identity issues: the association between an avoidance identity style and bulimic behavior. Identity: An International Journal of Theory and Research, 1, 161–178. doi: 10.1207/s1532706xid0102_04.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Winston, A. P. (2005). Projection, introjection and identity in anorexia nervosa. British Journal of Psychotherapy, 21, 389–399. doi: 10.1111/j.1752-0118.2005.tb00226.x.