Advertisement

A Comparison of Multidimensional Health Profiles across Three Trauma-Exposed Diagnostic Groups

  • Joah L. Williams
  • Meghan E. McDevitt-Murphy
  • Jordan A. Fields
  • Frank W. Weathers
  • Amanda M. Flood
Article

Abstract

Posttraumatic stress disorder has been associated with adverse health outcomes. The extent to which the health effects of PTSD differ from other diagnoses has not been explored empirically. The current study investigated the Multidimensional Health Profile (including both Psychosocial and Health factors), across three diagnostic groups and one group of well-adjusted participants (N = 92) in a contrasted-groups design. Participants were all trauma-exposed and were assessed using structured clinical interviews. The PTSD and depression groups tended to differ from the social phobia and well-adjusted groups. Both the PTSD and depression groups demonstrated elevated profiles on variables assessing psychological distress, negative social exchange, and hypochondriasis. Results are consistent with prior research suggesting PTSD is associated with worse psychological and health functioning relative to trauma-exposed individuals without PTSD, although these health outcomes seem to differ little between those with PTSD and those with depression.

Keywords

Mutidimensional health profile Trauma Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) College students Health functioning 

Notes

Acknowledgement

This work was supported by a grant from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (AA016120) to Meghan E. McDevitt-Murphy and by the Tennessee Board of Regents.

References

  1. American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  2. Barsky, A. J., Wyshak, G., & Klerman, G. L. (1992). Psychiatric comorbidity in DSM-III-R hypochondriasis. Archives of General Psychiatry, 49, 101–108.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. K. (1996). Beck depression inventory (2nd ed.). San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
  4. Blake, D. D., Weathers, F. W., Nagy, L. M., Kaloupek, D. G., Gusman, F. D., Charney, D. S., et al. (1995). The development of a clinician-administered PTSD scale. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 8, 75–90. doi: 10.1007/BF02105408.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Calhoun, P. S., Bosworth, H. B., Grambow, S. C., Dudley, T. K., & Beckham, J. C. (2002). Medical service utilization by veterans seeking help for posttraumatic stress disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 159, 2081–2086.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Calhoun, P. S., Wiley, M., Dennis, M. E., & Beckham, J. C. (2009). Self-reported health and physician diagnosed illnesses in women with posttraumatic stress disorder and major depressive disorder. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22, 122–130. doi: 10.1002/jts.20400.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chilcoat, H. D., & Menard, C. (2003). Epidemiological investigations: Comorbidity of posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder. In P. Ouimette & P. J. Brown (Eds.), Trauma and substance abuse: Causes, consequences, and treatment of comorbid disorders (pp. 9–28). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. DuPont, R. L., Rice, D. P., Miller, L. S., Shiraki, S. S., Rowland, C. R., & Harwood, H. J. (1996). Economic costs of anxiety disorders. Anxiety, 2, 167–172.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. First, M. B., Gibbon, M., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (1996). Structured clinical interview for DSM-IV axis I disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Press.Google Scholar
  10. Flood, A. M., McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Weathers, F. W., Eakin, D. E., & Benson, T. A. (2009). Substance use behaviors as a mediator between posttraumatic stress disorder and physical health in trauma-exposed college students. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 23, 234–243. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9195-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Grant, D. M., Beck, J. G., Marques, L., Palyo, S. A., & Clapp, J. D. (2008). The structure of distress following trauma: Posttraumatic stress disorder, major depressive disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 117, 662–672. doi: 10.1037/a0012591.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Greenberg, P. E., Sisitsky, T., Kessler, R. C., Finkelstein, S. N., Berndt, E. R., Davidson, J. R. T., et al. (1999). The economic burden of anxiety disorders in the 1990s. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60, 427–435.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Heiligenstein, E., Guenther, G., Hsu, K., & Herman, K. (1996). Depression and academic impairment in college students. Journal of American College Health, 45, 59–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Holahan, C. J., Pahl, S. A., Cronkite, R. C., Holahan, C. K., North, R. J., & Moos, R. H. (2010). Depression and vulnerability to incident physical illness across 10 years. Journal of Affective Disorders, 123, 222–229. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2009.10.006.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Jacobsen, L. K., Southwick, S. M., & Kosten, T. R. (2001). Substance use disorders in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder: A review of the literature. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 1184–1190.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Karoly, P., Ruehlman, L. S., & Lanyon, R. I. (2005). The assessment of adult health care orientations: Development and preliminary validation of the Multidimensional Health Profile – Health Functioning Scales (MHP-H) in a national sample. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 12, 79–91. doi: 10.1007/s10880-005-0915-y.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kessler, R. C., & Greenberg, P. E. (2002). The economic burden of anxiety and stress disorders. In K. L. Davis, D. Charney, J. T. Coyle, & C. Nemeroff (Eds.), Neuropsychopharmacology: The fifth generation of progress (pp. 981–992). Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins.Google Scholar
  18. King, D. W., Taft, C., King, L. A., Hammond, C., & Stone, E. R. (2006). Directionality of the association between social support and posttraumatic stress disorder: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36, 2980–2992. doi: 10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00138.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawler, C., Ouimette, P., & Dahlstedt, D. (2005). Posttraumatic stress symptoms, coping, and physical health status among university students seeking health care. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 18, 741–750. doi: 10.1002/jts.20082.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lewis, M. A., & Neighbors, C. (2004). Gender-specific misconceptions of college student drinking norms. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 334–339. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.18.4.334.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lincoln, K. D. (2008). Personality, negative interactions and mental health. Social Science Review, 82, 223–252. doi: 10.1086/589462.Google Scholar
  22. Mattick, R. P., & Clark, J. C. (1998). Development and validation of measures of social phobia, scrutiny, fear, and social interaction anxiety. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 36, 455–470. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7967(97)10031-6.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Murphy, J. G., Monahan, C. J., Flood, A. M., & Weathers, F. W. (2010). Unique patterns of substance misuse associated with PTSD, depression, and social phobia. Journal of Dual Diagnosis, 6, 94–110. doi: 10.1080/15504261003701445.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. McDevitt-Murphy, M. E., Williams, J. L., Bracken, K. L., Fields, J. A., Monahan, C. J., & Murphy, J. G. (2010). PTSD symptoms, hazardous drinking, and health functioning among U.S. OEF and OIF veterans presenting to primary care. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 23, 108–111. doi: 10.1002/jts.20482.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. Morrell, J. S., & Rubin, L. J. (2001). The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory – 2, posttraumatic stress disorder, and women domestic violence survivors. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 32, 151–156. doi: 10.1037//0735-7028.32.2.151.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.Google Scholar
  27. Perkonigg, A., Owashi, T., Stein, M. B., Kirschbaum, C., & Wittchen, H. (2009). Posttraumatic stress disorder and obesity: Evidence for a risk association. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36, 1–8. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.026.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ruehlman, L. S., Lanyon, R. I., & Karoly, P. (1998). Multidimensional health profile professional manual. Odessa: Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Google Scholar
  29. Ruehlman, L. S., Lanyon, R. I., & Karoly, P. (1999). Development and validation of the Multidimensional Health Profile, Part I: Psychosocial functioning. Psychological Assessment, 11, 166–176. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.11.2.166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Schnurr, P. P., & Spiro, A. (1999). Combat exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and health behaviors as predictors of self-reported physical health in older veterans. Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, 187, 353–359.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Stewart, S. H., Pihl, R. O., Conrod, P. J., & Dongier, M. (1998). Functional associations among trauma, PTSD, and substance-related disorders. Addictive Behaviors, 23, 797–812. doi: 10.1016/S0306-4603(98)00070-7.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walker, E. A., Katon, W., Russo, J., Ciechanowski, P., Newman, E., & Wagner, A. W. (2003). Health care costs associated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 60, 369–374.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Walker, E. A., Newman, E., & Koss, M. P. (2004). Costs and health care utilization associated with traumatic experiences. In P. P. Schnurr & B. L. Green (Eds.), Trauma and health: Physical heatlh consequences of exposure to extreme stress (pp. 43–69). Washington: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Weathers, F. W., Litz, B. T., Herman, D. S., Huska, J. A., & Keane, T. M. (1993). The PTSD checklist: Reliability, validity, and diagnostic utility. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies, San Antonio, TX.Google Scholar
  35. Weathers, F. W., Ruscio, A. M., & Keane, T. M. (1999). Psychometric properties of nine scoring rules for the clinician-administered posttraumatic stress disorder scale. Psychological Assessment, 11, 124–133. doi: 10.1037/1040-3590.11.2.124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Yehuda, R., Teicher, M. H., Trestman, R. L., Levengood, R. A., & Siever, L. J. (1996). Cortisol regulation in posttraumatic stress disorder and major depression: A chronobiological analysis. Society of Biological Psychiatry, 40, 79–88. doi: 10.1016/0006-3223(95)00451-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joah L. Williams
    • 1
  • Meghan E. McDevitt-Murphy
    • 1
  • Jordan A. Fields
    • 1
  • Frank W. Weathers
    • 2
  • Amanda M. Flood
    • 3
  1. 1.The University of MemphisMemphisUSA
  2. 2.Psychology DepartmentAuburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  3. 3.Deployment Health CenterPort HuenemePort HuenemeUSA

Personalised recommendations