Parent Ratings of the Oppositional Defiant Disorder Symptoms: Item Response Theory Analyses of Cross-National and Cross-Racial Invariance



Item response theory (IRT) based differential item functioning (DIF) was used to examine the construct and normative invariance of the DSM-IV oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) symptoms for ratings across Malaysian and Australian children, and Malaysian Malay and Malaysian Chinese children. To accomplish these goals, parents completed the Disruptive Behavior Rating Scale, which includes the eight DSM-IV ODD symptoms. Although the comparisons involving Malaysian and Australian children indicated DIF for five symptoms, only the symptom for “touchy” showed notable DIF. This was also the only symptom that showed DIF for the comparisons involving Malay and Chinese children. There were also minimal differences in the latent mean scores across Australian and Malaysian children and also Malay and Chinese children. These results indicate good support for the construct and normative invariance of the ODD symptoms for the samples compared.


ODD Culture Malaysian Australian Invariance IRT 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rapson Gomez
    • 1
  • G. Leonard Burns
    • 2
  • James A. Walsh
    • 3
  1. 1.School of PsychologyUniversity of TasmaniaHobartAustralia
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyWashington State UniversityPullmanUSA
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MontanaMissoulaUSA

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