Journal of Biomolecular NMR

, Volume 41, Issue 2, pp 105–111 | Cite as

Improved residual water suppression: WET180

  • Huaping Mo
  • Daniel Raftery


Water suppression in biological NMR is frequently made inefficient by the presence of faraway water that is located near the edges of the RF coil and experiences significantly reduced RF field. WET180 (WET with 180° pulse-toggling) is proposed to cancel the faraway water contribution to the residual solvent signal. The pulse sequence incorporates a modification of the last WET selective pulse to accommodate insertion of a toggled 180° inversion pulse so that the original WET selective pulse angles are effectively preserved. Compared with existing WET methods, WET180 has the advantages of easy implementation, improved residual water suppression, clean spectral phase properties, and good signal intensity retention. WET180 is expected to be most useful in observing resonances close to water in samples containing biological molecules. In addition, the principle of WET180 can be applied in multidimensional experiments to improve residual water suppression and reduce artifacts around water.


Biological NMR Metabolomics Residual water Water suppression WET180 



The authors thank Peter Howe for helpful suggestions. Partial financial support for one of the authors (DR) is from the NIH Roadmap Initiative on Metabolomics Technology, NIH/NIDDK 3 R21 DK070290-01. DR is a member of Purdue’s Cancer and Oncological Sciences Centers.

Supplementary material


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Purdue Inter-Departmental NMR Facility, Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular PharmacologyPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryPurdue UniversityWest LafayetteUSA

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