Professional development for practicing mathematics teachers: a critical connection to English language learner students in mainstream USA classrooms
- 1.1k Downloads
This article examines the effects of changing teacher self-efficacy on student achievement. Results from a quantitative study of mathematics teachers in a USA mid-Atlantic state showed that teachers experienced reduced self-efficacy when working with English language learner students (ELLs) relative to non-ELLs. Further, the article explores professional development opportunities for strengthening teachers’ effectiveness with ELLs. The study utilized a four-part survey instrument based on the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES). All participants (n = 181) were mathematics educators from the highlighted state, and 94 % of them were preK-12 public school practicing classroom teachers. Study results indicate that teachers’ participation in professional development on ELL instruction is positively correlated to their heightened sense of self-efficacy. This finding points to continuing education as a potentially viable approach to reducing academic challenges for ELL students in mainstream mathematics classrooms by developing ever more effective practicing teachers.
KeywordsTeacher self-efficacy Mathematics instruction for English language learner students Professional development for practicing teachers Continuing education for teachers
- Armor, D., Conroy-Oseguera, P., Cox, M., King, N., McConnell, L., Pascal, A., Pauly, E., & Zellman, G. (1976). Analysis of the school preferred reading programs in selected Los Angeles minority schools, REPORT NO. R-2007-LAUSD. Santa Monica, CA: Rand Corporation (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. 130 243).Google Scholar
- Ashton, P. T., & Webb, R. B. (1986). Making a difference: Teachers’ sense of efficacy and student achievement. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
- Ballantyne, K. G., Sanderman, A. R., & Levy, J. (2008). Educating English language learners: Building teacher capacity. Washington, DC: National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition.Google Scholar
- Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman.Google Scholar
- Bell, C. A., Wilson, S. M., Higgins, T., & McCoach, D. B. (2010). Measuring the effects of professional development on teacher knowledge: The case of developing mathematical ideas. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5), 479–512.Google Scholar
- Campbell, A. E., Adams, V. M., & Davis, G. E. (2007). Cognitive demands and second-language learners: A framework for analyzing mathematics instructional contexts. Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 9(1), 3–30.Google Scholar
- Cruz-Janzen, M., & Taylor, M. (2004). Hitting the ground running: Why introductory teacher education courses should deal with multiculturalism. Multicultural Education, 12(1), 16–23.Google Scholar
- Cummins, J. (1984). Language proficiency, bilingualism, and academic achievement. In J. Cummins (Ed.), Bilingualism and special education: Issues in assessment and pedagogy (pp. 136–151). San Diego, CA: College Hill.Google Scholar
- Cummins, J. (2005). Teaching the language of academic success: A framework for school-based language policies. In C. Leyba (Ed.), Schooling and language minority students: A theoretical-practical framework (3rd ed., pp. 3–32). Los Angeles, CA: Legal Books Distributing.Google Scholar
- de Jong, E. J., & Harper, C. A. (2005). Preparing mainstream teachers for English-language learners: Is being a good teacher good enough? Teacher Education Quarterly, 32(2), 101–124.Google Scholar
- Díaz-Rico, L. T., & Weed, K. Z. (2010). The crosscultural, language, and academic development handbook: A complete K-12 reference guide. Boston, MA: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Flynn, K., & Hill, J. (2005). English language learners: A growing population. Denver, CO: Mid-continent Research for Education and Learning.Google Scholar
- Freeman, Y. S., & Freeman, D. E. (2009). Academic language for English language learners and struggling readers: How to help students succeed across content areas. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Freeman, Y. S., Freeman, D. E., & Mercuri, S. (2002). Closing the achievement gap: How to reach limited-formal-schooling and long-term English learners. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.Google Scholar
- Fry, R. (2007). How far behind in math and reading are English language learners?. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
- Garet, M. S., Wayne, A., Stancavage, F., Taylor, J., Walters, K., Song, M., et al. (2010). Middle school mathematics professional development impact study: Findings after the first year of implementation (NCEE 2010-4009). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute for Education Sciences, United States Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Goddard, Y. L., Goddard, R. D., & Tschannen-Moran, M. (2007). A theoretical and empirical investigation of teacher collaboration for school improvement and student achievement in public elementary schools. Teachers College Record, 109, 877–896.Google Scholar
- Halliday, M. A. K. (1978). Language as social semiotic: The social interpretation of language. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
- Hill, H. C. (2010). The nature and predictors of elementary teachers’ mathematical knowledge for teaching. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 41(5), 513–545.Google Scholar
- Irvine, J. J. (2003). Educating teachers for diversity: Seeing with a cultural eye. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2002). Schools and staffing survey, 1999–2000: Overview of the data from public, private, public charter and Bureau of Indian Affairs elementary and secondary schools. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.Google Scholar
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2010). Mathematics 2009: National assessment of education progress at grades 4 and 8. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education. Retrieved July 26, 2011 from http://nationsreportcard.gov/math_2009/inclusion.asp.
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2011a). The condition of education 2011. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education. Retrieved August 20, 2011 from http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2011/2011033.pdf.
- National Center for Education Statistics. (2011b). The nation’s report card: Update May 11, 2011. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education. Retrieved August 20, 2011 from http://nces.ed.gov/nationsreportcard/naepdata/report.aspx.
- National Clearinghouse for English Language Acquisition. (2010). The growing numbers of English learner students: 1997/98–2007/08. Washington, DC: The George Washington University.Google Scholar
- National Commission on Mathematics and Science Teaching for the 21st Century (2000). Before it’s too late: A report to the nation. Washington, DC. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from: http://www2.ed.gov/inits/Math/glenn/report.pdf.
- Nieto, S. (2002). Language, culture and teaching. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Ovando, C. J., Collier, V. P., & Combs, M. C. (2006). Bilingual and ESL classrooms: Teaching in multicultural contexts. Boston: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
- Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2008a). Trends in unauthorized immigration: Undocumented inflow now trails legal inflow. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
- Passel, J. S., & Cohn, D. (2008b). A portrait of unauthorized immigrants in the United States. Washington, DC: Pew Hispanic Center.Google Scholar
- Puma, M. J. (2009). What to do when data are missing in group randomized controlled trials. National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance. Washington, DC: United States Department of Education.Google Scholar
- Roberts, S. A. (2010). Supporting English language learners’ development of mathematical literacy. Democracy & Education, 81(3), 29–36.Google Scholar
- Subject State’s Assessment Data. (2012). Will be added to non-blind copy of this article.Google Scholar
- Subject State’s Student Enrollment Data. (2010). Will be added to non-blind copy of this article.Google Scholar
- Sztajn, P. (2011). Standards for reporting mathematical professional development in research studies. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 42(3), 220–236.Google Scholar
- Tschannen-Moran, M., & Woolfolk Hoy, A. (2009). Teachers’ sense of efficacy scale. Retrieved on November 22, 2009 from: http://people.ehe.ohio-state.edu/ahoy/files/2009/02/tses.pdf.
- United States Department of Education. (2008). Foundations for success: The final report of the national mathematics advisory panel. Washington, DC. Retrieved on February 13, 2010 from: http://www2.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/mathpanel/report/final-report.pdf.
- Widaman, K. F. (2006). Missing data: What to do with or without them. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 71(3), 42–64.Google Scholar
- Wong, P. (2008). Transactions, transformation, and transcendence: Multicultural service- learning experience of preservice teachers. Multicultural Education, 16(2), 31–35.Google Scholar
- Woolfolk Hoy, A., & Davis, H. A. (2006). Teacher self-efficacy and its influence on the achievement of adolescents. In F. Pajares & T. Urdan (Eds.), Self-efficacy beliefs of adolescents (pp. 117–137). Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.Google Scholar