Chemical stability and osteogenic activity of plasma-sprayed boron-modified calcium silicate-based coatings

Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization Original Research
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Biomaterials Synthesis and Characterization


In recent years, CaSiO3 bio-ceramic coatings have attracted great attention because of their good bioactivity. However, their high degradation rates in physiological environment restrict their practical applications. In this work, boron-modified CaSiO3 ceramic (Ca11Si4B2O22, B-CS) coating was developed on Ti substrates by plasma-spraying technique attempting to obtain enhanced chemical stability and osteogenic activity. The B-CS coating possessed significantly increased chemical stability due to the introduction of boron and consequently the modified crystal structure, while maintaining good bioactivity. Scanning electron microscope and immunofluorescence studies showed that better cellular adhesion and extinctive filopodia-like processes were observed on the B-CS coating. Compared with the pure CaSiO3 (CS) coating, the B-CS coating promoted MC3T3-E1 cells attachment and proliferation. In addition, enhanced collagen I (COL-I) secretion, alkaline phosphatase activity, and extracellular matrix mineralization levels were detected from the B-CS coating. According to RT-PCR results, notable up-regulation expressions of mineralized tissue-related genes, such as runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), bone sialoprotein and osteocalcin, and bone morphogenetic protein 7 (BMP-7) were observed on the B-CS coating compared with the CS coating. The above results suggested that Ca11Si4B2O22 coatings possess excellent osteogenic activity and might be a promising candidate for orthopedic applications.


Bioactive Glass CaSiO3 Osteogenic Activity Calcium Silicate Coating Enhance Chemical Stability 



This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51502328, No. 81301537, No. 81300917) and the Opening Project of the Shanghai Key Laboratory of Orthopedic Implant (Grant No. KFKT2016003).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


  1. 1.
    Xie Y, Liu X, Ding C, Chu PK. Bioconductivity and mechanical properties of plasma-sprayed dicalcium silicate/zirconia composite coating. Mater Sci Eng: C. 2005;25(4):509–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Liu X, Xie Y, Ding C, Chu PK. Early apatite deposition and osteoblast growth on plasma-sprayed dicalcium silicate coating. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 2005;74(3):356–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Xue W, Liu X, Zheng X, Ding C. In vivo evaluation of plasma-sprayed wollastonite coating. Biomaterials. 2005;26(17):3455–60.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wu C, Ramaswamy Y, Soeparto A, Zreiqat H. Incorporation of titanium into calcium silicate improved their chemical stability and biological properties. J Biomed Mater Res Part A. 2008;86(2):402–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Zhu Y, Zhu M, He X, Zhang J, Tao C. Substitutions of strontium in mesoporous calcium silicate and their physicochemical and biological properties. Acta Biomater. 2013;9(5):6723–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Li K, Yu J, Xie Y, Huang L, Ye X, Zheng X. Chemical stability and antimicrobial activity of plasma sprayed bioactive Ca2ZnSi2O7 coating. J Mater Sci – Mater Med. 2011;22(12):2781–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Hu D, Li K, Xie Y, Pan H, Zhao J, Huang L, et al. Different response of osteoblastic cells to Mg2+, Zn2+ and Sr2+ doped calcium silicate coatings. J Mater Sci – Mater Med. 2016;27(3):27–56.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Liang Y, Xie Y, Ji H, Huang L, Zheng X. Excellent stability of plasma-sprayed bioactive Ca3ZrSi2O9 ceramic coating on Ti–6Al–4V. Appl Surf Sci. 2010;256(14):4677–81.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Zhang N, Molenda JA, Mankoci S, Zhou X, Murphy WL, Sahai N. Crystal structures of CaSiO3 polymorphs control growth and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on bioceramic surfaces. Biomater Sci. 2013;1(10):1101–10.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bose S, Fielding G, Tarafder S, Bandyopadhyay A. Understanding of dopant-induced osteogenesis and angiogenesis in calcium phosphate ceramics. Trends Biotechnol. 2013;31(10):594–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wu C, Chen Z, Yi D, Chang J, Xiao Y. Multidirectional effects of Sr-, Mg-, and Si-containing bioceramic coatings with high bonding strength on inflammation, osteoclastogenesis, and osteogenesis. ACS Appl Mater Inter. 2014;6(6):4264–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen Z, Yi D, Zheng X, Chang J, Wu C, Xiao Y. Nutrient element-based bioceramic coatings on titanium alloy stimulating osteogenesis by inducing beneficial osteoimmmunomodulation. J Mater Chem B. 2014;2(36):6030.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sharmin N, Hasan MS, Parsons AJ, Furniss D, Scotchford CA, Ahmed I, et al. Effect of boron addition on the thermal, degradation, and cytocompatibility properties of phosphate-based glasses. BiomedResInt. 2013;2013:902427. doi: 10.1155/2013/902427.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Saranti A, Koutselas I, Karakassides MA. Bioactive glasses in the system CaO–B2O3–P2O5: Preparation, structural study and in vitro evaluation. J Non-Cryst Solids. 2006;352(5):390–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gautam C, Yadav AK, Singh AK. A review on infrared spectroscopy of borate glasses with effects of different additives. ISRN Ceramics. 2012;2012:1–17. doi: 10.5402/2012/428497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Massera J, Claireaux C, Lehtonen T, Tuominen J, Hupa L, Hupa M. Control of the thermal properties of slow bioresorbable glasses by boron addition. J Non-Cryst Solids. 2011;357(21):3623–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Karabulut M, Yuce B, Bozdogan O, Ertap H, Mammadov GM. Effect of boron addition on the structure and properties of iron phosphate glasses. J Non-Cryst Solids. 2011;357(5):1455–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Palacios C. The role of nutrients in bone health, from A to Z. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr. 2006;46(8):621–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Nielsen FH. Update on human health effects of boron. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2014;28(4):383–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Nielsen FH, Meacham SL. Growing evidence for human health benefits of boron. J Evid Based Complementary Altern Med. 2011;16(3):169–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Nielsen FH. Dietary fat composition modifies the effect of boron on bone characteristics and plasma lipids in rats. BioFactors. 2004;20(3):161–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gorustovich AA, Steimetz T, Nielsen FH, Guglielmotti MB. A histomorphometric study of alveolar bone modelling and remodelling in mice fed a boron-deficient diet. Arch Oral Biol. 2008;53(7):677–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hakki SS, Bozkurt BS, Hakki EE. Boron regulates mineralized tissue-associated proteins in osteoblasts (MC3T3-E1). J Trace Elem Med Biol. 2010;24(4):243–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Tasli PN, Dogan A, Demirci S, Sahin F. Boron enhances odontogenic and osteogenic differentiation of human tooth germ stem cells (hTGSCs) in vitro. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2013;153(1–3):419–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Haro Durand LA, Vargas GE, Romero NM, Vera-Mesones R, Porto-López JM, Boccaccini AR, et al. Angiogenic effects of ionic dissolution products released from a boron-doped 45S5 bioactive glass. J Mater Chem B. 2015;3(6):1142–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Zhao S, Wang H, Zhang Y, Huang W, Rahaman MN, Liu Z, et al. Copper-doped borosilicate bioactive glass scaffolds with improved angiogenic and osteogenic capacity for repairing osseous defects. Acta Biomater. 2015;14:185–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gorustovich AA, Lopez JM, Guglielmotti MB, Cabrini RL. Biological performance of boron-modified bioactive glass particles implanted in rat tibia bone marrow. Biomed Mater. 2006;1(3):100–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bi L, Rahaman MN, Day DE, Brown Z, Samujh C, Liu X, et al. Effect of bioactive borate glass microstructure on bone regeneration, angiogenesis, and hydroxyapatite conversion in a rat calvarial defect model. Acta Biomater. 2013;9(8):8015–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Suzuki K, Hira I. Study on the System of 2CaO·SiO2-3CaO·B2O3. Ceram Soc Jpn. 1970;78(6):189–94.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Fletcher JG, Glasser FP. Phase relations in the system CaO-B2O3-SiO2. J Mater Sci. 1993;28:2677–86. doi: 10.1007/BF00356203.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Kokubo T, Takadama H. How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? Biomaterials. 2006;27(15):2907–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Xue W, Liu X, Zheng X, Ding C. Plasma-sprayed diopside coatings for biomedical applications. Surf Coat Technol. 2004;185(2–3):340–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Olmo N. Bioactive sol–gel glasses with and without a hydroxycarbonate apatite layer as substrates for osteoblast cell adhesion and proliferation. Biomaterials. 2003;24(20):3383–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hesse K-F. Refinement of the crystal structure of wollastonite-2M (parawollastonite). Z Kristallogr. 1984;168:93–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Smith JV, Karle IL, Hauptman H, Karle J. The crystal structure of spurrite, Ca5(SiO4)2CO3. II. Description of structure. Acta Cryst. 1960;13:454–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Haro Durand LA, Góngora A, Porto López JM, Boccaccini AR, Zago MP, Baldi A, et al. In vitro endothelial cell response to ionic dissolution products from boron-doped bioactive glass in the SiO2–CaO–P2O5–Na2O system. J Mater Chem B. 2014;2(43):7620–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Han P, Wu C, Xiao Y. The effect of silicate ions on proliferation, osteogenic differentiation and cell signalling pathways (WNT and SHH) of bone marrow stromal cells. Biomater Sci. 2013;1(4):379–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Park M, Li Q, Shcheynikov N, Zeng W, Muallem S. NaBC1 is a ubiquitous electrogenic Na+ -coupled borate transporter essential for cellular boron homeostasis and cell growth and proliferation. Mol Cell. 2004;16(3):331–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Park M, Li Q, Shcheynikov N, Muallem S, Zeng W. Borate transport and cell growth and proliferation: not only in plants. Cell Cycle. 2005;4(1):24–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Li X, Wang X, Jiang X, Yamaguchi M, Ito A, Bando Y, et al. Boron nitride nanotube-enhanced osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells. J Biomed Mater Res B Appl Biomater. 2016;104(2):323–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Dogan A, Demirci S, Bayir Y, Halici Z, Karakus E, Aydin A, et al. Boron containing poly-(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering. Mater Sci Eng, C. 2014;44:246–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    TA O, M A, V S, LM B, L W, MS T, et al. Progressive development of the rat osteoblast phenotype in vitro: reciprocal relationships in expression of genes associated with osteoblast proliferation and differentiation during formation of the bone extracellular matrix. J Cell Physiol. 1990;143(3):420–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Stucki U, Schmid J, Hammerle CF, Lang NP. Temporal and local appearance of alkaline phosphatase activity in early stages of guided bone regeneration. A descriptive histochemical study in humans. Clin Oral Impl Res. 2001;12:121–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ying X, Cheng S, Wang W, Lin Z, Chen Q, Zhang W, et al. Effect of boron on osteogenic differentiation of human bone marrow stromal cells. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2011;144(1-3):306–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Franceschi RT, Ge C, Xiao G, Roca H, Jiang D. Transcriptional regulation of osteoblasts. Cells Tissues Organs. 2009;189(1–4):144–52.Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Gersbach CA, Byers BA, Pavlath GK, Garcia AJ. Runx2/Cbfa1 stimulates transdifferentiation of primary skeletal myoblasts into a mineralizing osteoblastic phenotype. Exp Cell Res. 2004;300(2):406–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Xiao YT, Xiang LX, Shao JZ. Bone morphogenetic protein. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007;362(3):550–3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Phimphilai M, Zhao Z, Boules H, Roca H, Franceschi RT. BMP signaling is required for RUNX2-dependent induction of the osteoblast phenotype. J Bone Miner Res. 2006;21(4):637–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Chimal-Monroy J, Rodriguez-Leon J, Montero JA, Gañan Y, Macias D, Merino R, et al. Analysis of the molecular cascade responsible for mesodermal limb chondrogenesis: sox genes and BMP signaling. Dev Biol. 2003;257(2):292–301.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Key Laboratory of Inorganic Coating MaterialsShanghai Institute of Ceramics, Chinese Academy of SciencesShanghaiPR China
  2. 2.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPR China

Personalised recommendations