Cytocompatibility of magnesium and AZ31 alloy with three types of cell lines using a direct in vitro method
- 253 Downloads
Magnesium alloys have been investigated by many researchers as a new absorbable biomaterial owing to their excellent degradability with non-maleficence or low-maleficence in living tissues. In the present work, the in vitro cytocompatibility of an Magnesium alloy was investigated by culturing cells directly on it. Investigations were carried out in terms of the cell viability along with the use of scanning electron microscopy to observe its morphology. The cell lines used were derived from fibroblast, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Pure magnesium and AZ31 alloy composed of magnesium (96 %), aluminum (3 %), and zinc (1 %) were adopted as models. The viability of cells on the metal samples and on the margin area of a multi-well plate was investigated. For direct culturing on metal, a depression in the viability and morphologically stressed cells were observed. In addition, the cell viability was also depressed for the margin area. To clarify the factors causing the negative effects, the amount of eluted metal ions and pH changes in the medium because of the erosion of the Magnesium samples were investigated, together with the cytotoxicity of sole metal ions corresponding to the composition of the metals. It was found that Mg2+, Zn2+, and Al3+ ions were less toxic at the investigated concentrations, and that these factors will not produce negative effects on cells. Consequently, these factors cannot fully explain the results.
KeywordsAZ31 Alloy Margin Area Metal Sample Original Medium Adsorbed Protein Layer
This work was sponsored by E.S.Q. Ltd., (Yabuki, Fukushima, Japan) in the year 2014 under the subsidiary enterprise “Research and Development Programs for Medical and Welfare Apparatus” by Fukushima prefectural government. We thank Support Center for Medical Research and Education, Tokai University for their technical support in SEM observation and Technology Joint Management Office for their measurement of surface roughness.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
- 3.Herring WB, Leavell BS, aixao LM, Yoe JH. Trace metal in human plasma and red blood cells. A study of magnesium, chromium, Nickel, Copper and Zinc I. Observation of normal subjects. Am J Clin Nutr. 1960;8:846–54.Google Scholar
- 25.ASTM B275-05 standard practice for codification of certain nonferrous metals and alloys, cast and wrought. In: Annual book of ASTM standards. Philadelphia, PA: American Society for Testing and Materials; 2005.Google Scholar
- 35.Beutler E. Anemia resulting from other nutritional deficiencies. In: Lichtma MA, Beutler E, Kipps TJ, Seligshon U, Kaushansky K, Prchal JT, editors. Williams hematology. 7th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2006, Chapter 41, p. 555-60.Google Scholar
- 36.Dean JA. Lange’s handbook of chemistry, section 8, electrolytes, electromotive force, and chemical equilibrium. 8.2 equilibrium constants, table 8.6 solubility product constants. 15th ed. New York: McGraw Hill; 1998.Google Scholar