Fabrication and development of artificial osteochondral constructs based on cancellous bone/hydrogel hybrid scaffold
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Using tissue engineering techniques, an artificial osteochondral construct was successfully fabricated to treat large osteochondral defects. In this study, porcine cancellous bones and chitosan/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds were used as substitutes to mimic bone and cartilage, respectively. The porosity and distribution of pore size in porcine bone was measured and the degradation ratio and swelling ratio for chitosan/gelatin hydrogel scaffolds was also determined in vitro. Surface morphology was analyzed with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The physicochemical properties and the composition were tested by using an infrared instrument. A double layer composite scaffold was constructed via seeding adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) induced to chondrocytes and osteoblasts, followed by inoculation in cancellous bones and hydrogel scaffolds. Cell proliferation was assessed through Dead/Live staining and cellular activity was analyzed with IpWin5 software. Cell growth, adhesion and formation of extracellular matrix in composite scaffolds blank cancellous bones or hydrogel scaffolds were also analyzed. SEM analysis revealed a super porous internal structure of cancellous bone scaffolds and pore size was measured at an average of 410 ± 59 μm while porosity was recorded at 70.6 ± 1.7 %. In the hydrogel scaffold, the average pore size was measured at 117 ± 21 μm and the porosity and swelling rate were recorded at 83.4 ± 0.8 % and 362.0 ± 2.4 %, respectively. Furthermore, the remaining hydrogel weighed 80.76 ± 1.6 % of the original dry weight after hydration in PBS for 6 weeks. In summary, the cancellous bone and hydrogel composite scaffold is a promising biomaterial which shows an essential physical performance and strength with excellent osteochondral tissue interaction in situ. ADSCs are a suitable cell source for osteochondral composite reconstruction. Moreover, the bi-layered scaffold significantly enhanced cell proliferation compared to the cells seeded on either single scaffold. Therefore, a bi-layered composite scaffold is an appropriate candidate for fabrication of osteochondral tissue.
KeywordsCancellous Bone Osteogenic Differentiation Cartilage Tissue Composite Scaffold Osteochondral Defect
The present work was supported by Fok Ying Tung Education Foundation (132027), National Science Foundation of China (31370991/31170945/81271719/81341060), the Joint Open Foundation of Natural Science Foundation of Liaoning and Shenyang National Laboratory for Materials Science (2015021017) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (DUT14YQ106/15GY47/16ZD210), SRF for ROCS, SEM.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors have no conflicts of interest.
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