Hybrid nanostructured Ag/ZnO decorated powder cellulose fillers for medical plastics with enhanced surface antibacterial activity
- 471 Downloads
Hybrid inorganic–organic fillers based on nanostructured silver/zinc oxide decorations on micro-cellulose carrier particles were prepared by stepwise microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis using soluble salts as precursors of silver and zinc oxide. Hexamethylenetetramine was used as precipitating agent for zinc oxide and reducing agent for silver. The inorganics covered all available surfaces of the cellulose particles with a morphology resembling a coral reef. Prepared particulate fillers were compounded to medical grade poly(vinyl chloride) matrix. Scanning electron microscopy and powder X-ray diffractometry were used to investigate the morphology and crystalline phase structure of fillers. The scanning electron microscopy was used for morphological study of composites. With respect to prospective application, the composites were tested on electrical and antibacterial properties. A small effect of water absorption in polymer composites on their dielectric properties was observed but no adverse effect of water exposure on prepared materials was manifested. Electrical conductivity of fillers and composites was measured and no influence of water soaking of composites was found at all. The surface antibacterial activity of prepared composites was evaluated according to the standard ISO 22196. Excellent performance against Escherichia coli and very high against Staphylococcus aureus was achieved.
KeywordsPolymer Matrix Silver Nanoparticles Cellulose Powder Dielectric Spectrum Prepared Composite
This article was written with support of Operational Program Research and Development for Innovations co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) and national budget of Czech Republic, within the framework of project Centre of Polymer Systems (reg. number: CZ.1.05/2.1.00/03.0111). The authors also acknowledge the support of Operational Program Education for Competitiveness co-funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and national budget of Czech Republic, within the framework of project Advanced Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Polymer Systems (reg. number: CZ.1.07/2.3.00/20.0104). The work of L. M. was supported by the Internal Grant Agency of Tomas Bata University in Zlin; contract Grant Number: IGA/FT/2014/008.
- 3.Sirolli V, Di Stante S, Stuard S, Di Liberato L, Amoroso L, Cappelli P, et al. Biocompatibility and functional performance of a polyethylene glycol acid-grafted cellulosic membrane for hemodialysis. Int J Artif Organs. 2000;23(6):356–64.Google Scholar
- 12.Sastri VS. Plastics in medical devices: properties, requirements and applications. Norwich: Elsevier/William Andrew; 2010.Google Scholar
- 16.Sedlarik V. Antimicrobial modifications of polymers. In: Chamy R, Rosenkranz F, editors. Biodegradation—life of science. Croatia: InTech; 2013.Google Scholar
- 25.Shah AH, Manikandan E, Ahmed MB, Ganesan V. Enhanced bioactivity of Ag/ZnO nanorods-a comparative antibacterial study. J Nanomed Nanotechol. 2013;4(168):2.Google Scholar
- 28.ISO 22196:2007 (E). Plastics—measurement of antimicrobial activity on plastics surfaces. Geneva, Switzerland: International standard, International Organization for Standardization; 2007.Google Scholar
- 29.Jones A. Killer plastics: antimicrobial additives for polymers. Plast Eng. 2008;64(8):34–40.Google Scholar
- 30.JIS Z 2801. Antimicrobial products—test for antimicrobial activity and efficacy. Tokyo, Japan: Japanese Standards Association, JIS Z 2801; 2000.Google Scholar
- 32.Bazant P, Kuritka I, Machovsky M, Sedlacek T, Pastorek M, editors. Microwave assisted synthesis of Ag–ZnO particles and their antibacterial properties. Mathematical methods and techniques in engineering and environmental science 4th WSEAS international conferences on material science; 3–5.11.2011; Catania, Italy; 2011.Google Scholar
- 40.Jasem SH, Hussain WA. Dielectric properties of carbon black/PVC (cement) composites. J Appl Polym Sci. 2012;38(1.A):60–70.Google Scholar
- 41.Geilich BM, Webster TJ. Reduced adhesion of Staphylococcus aureus to ZnO/PVC nanocomposites. Int J Nanomed. 2013;8:1177–84.Google Scholar