Novel mineralized heparin–gelatin nanoparticles for potential application in tissue engineering of bone
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Nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared from succinylated gelatin (s-GL) cross-linked with aldehyde heparin (a-HEP) and used subsequently as a nano-template for the mineralization of hydroxyapatite (HAP). Gelatin was functionalized with succinyl groups that made it soluble at room temperature. Heparin was oxidized to generate aldehyde groups and then used as a cross-linker that can react with s-GL to form NPs via Schiff’s base linkage. The polymer concentrations, feed molar ratios and pH conditions were varied to fabricate NPs suspension. NPs were obtained with a spheroid shape of an average size of 196 nm at pH 2.5 and 202 nm at pH 7.4. These NPs had a positive zeta potential of 7.3 ± 3.0 mV and a narrow distribution with PDI 0.123 at pH 2.5, while they had a negative zeta potential of −2.6 ± 0.3 mV and formed aggregates (PDI 0.257) at pH 7.4. The NPs prepared at pH 2.5 with a mean particle size of 196 nm were further used for mineralization studies. The mineralization process was mediated by solution without calcination at 37 °C. The HAP formed on NPs was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction. HAP coated s-GL/a-HEP NPs developed in this study may be used in future as osteoinductive fillers enhancing the mechanical properties of injectable hydrogel or use as potential multifunctional device for nanotherapeutic approaches.
KeywordsGelatin Hyaluronic Acid Dynamic Light Scattering Aldehyde Group Genipin
We are very thankful to Dr. Hendrik Metz for zeta potential experiment, Mrs. Ute Mentzel for FFFF and DLS measurements and Ms. Kristin Wendt for XRD analysis. This work was supported by the European Union Seventh Framework Program (FP7/2007–2013) under Grant agreement no. NMP4-SL-2009-229292 (“Find and Bind”).
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