Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine

, Volume 24, Issue 12, pp 2787–2796 | Cite as

Evaluation of the in vitro biocompatibility of PMMA/high-load HA/carbon nanostructures bone cement formulations

  • Gil Gonçalves
  • María-Teresa Portolés
  • Cecilia Ramírez-Santillán
  • María Vallet-Regí
  • Ana Paula Serro
  • José Grácio
  • Paula A. A. P. Marques


Although commercially-available poly(methyl methacrylate) bone cement is widely used in total joint replacements, it has many shortcomings, a major one being that it does not osseointegrate with the contiguous structures. We report on the in vitro evaluation of the biocompatibility of modified formulations of the cement in which a high loading of hydroxyapatite (67 wt/wt%), an extra amount of benzoyl peroxide, and either 0.1 wt/wt% functionalized carbon nanotubes or 0.5 wt/wt% graphene oxide was added to the cement powder and an extra amount of dimethyl-p-toluidiene was added to the cement’s liquid monomer. This evaluation was done using mouse L929 fibroblasts and human Saos-2 osteoblasts. For each combination of cement formulation and cell type, there was high cell viability, low apoptosis, and extensive spread on disc surfaces. Thus, these two cement formulations may have potential for use in the clinical setting.


Graphene Oxide PMMA Surface Free Energy Bone Cement Disc Surface 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Gil Gonçalves thanks the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia (FCT) for the PostDoc grant (SFRH/BDP/84419/2012). This study was co-financed by QREN, programme Mais Centro-Programa Operacional Regional do Centro and União Europeia/Fundo Europeu de Desenvolvimento Regional, project Biomaterials for Regenerative Medicine (CENTRO-07-ST24-FEDER-002030). This study was supported by research grants from Comunidad de Madrid (S2009/MAT-1472). The authors thank the staff of the Cytometry and Fluorescence Microscopy Centre at the Universidad Complutense de Madrid (Spain). Financial support by the CICYT, Spain (Project MAT2008-00736), and Comunidad Autónoma de Madrid, Spain (Project S2009/MAT-1472) is gratefully acknowledged.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gil Gonçalves
    • 1
  • María-Teresa Portolés
    • 2
  • Cecilia Ramírez-Santillán
    • 2
  • María Vallet-Regí
    • 3
    • 4
  • Ana Paula Serro
    • 5
    • 6
  • José Grácio
    • 1
  • Paula A. A. P. Marques
    • 1
  1. 1.TEMA – NRD, Mechanical Engineering Department and Aveiro Institute of Nanotechnology (AIN)University of AveiroAveiroPortugal
  2. 2.Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology I, Faculty of ChemistryUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpain
  3. 3.Departamento de Química Inorgánica y Bioinorgánica, Facultad de FarmaciaUniversidad Complutense de MadridMadridSpain
  4. 4.Networking Research Center on Bioengineering Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN)MadridSpain
  5. 5.Centro de Química Estrutural, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade Técnica de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  6. 6.Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar Egas MonizInstituto Superior de Ciências da Saúde Egas MonizCaparicaPortugal

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