XPS and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies on effects of the porcelain firing process on surface and corrosion properties of two nickel–chromium dental alloys
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a simulated porcelain firing process on the surface, corrosion behavior and cell culture response of two nickel–chromium (Ni–Cr) dental alloys. A Be-free alloy and a Be-containing alloy were tested. Before porcelain firing, as-cast specimens were examined for surface composition using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and metallurgical phases using X-ray diffraction. Corrosion behaviors were evaluated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. 3T3 fibroblasts were cultured and exposed indirectly to specimens. MTT assays were counted after 3 and 6 days. The cell culture mediums exposed to specimens were analyzed for metal ion release. After porcelain firing, similar specimens were examined for the same properties. In both as-cast and fired conditions, the Be-free Ni–Cr alloy showed significantly more resistance to corrosion than the Be-containing Ni–Cr alloy, which exhibited BeNi phase. After porcelain firing, the corrosion resistance of the Be-free Ni–Cr alloy decreased statistically, corresponding with evident decreases of Cr and Ni oxides on the alloy surface. Also, the alloy’s MTT assay decreased significantly corresponding with an obvious increase of Ni-ion release after the firing. For the Be-containing Ni–Cr alloy, the firing process led to increases of surface oxides and metallic Be, while its corrosion resistance and cell culture response were not significantly changed after porcelain firing. The results suggested that the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility of the Be-free Ni–Cr alloy decreased after porcelain firing, whereas the firing process had little effect on the same properties of the Be-containing Ni–Cr alloy.
KeywordsCorrosion Resistance Surface Oxide Layer Surface Oxide Film Gingival Inflammation Firing Process
This work was supported by Natural Science Foundation of Higher Education Institutions of Jiangsu Province, China (Project Number: 11KJB320004).
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