Advertisement

Preparation and analysis of chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating formed by pulsed laser deposition

  • P. Rajesh
  • C. V. Muraleedharan
  • S. Sureshbabu
  • Manoj Komath
  • Harikrishna Varma
Article

Abstract

Bioactive ceramic coatings based on calcium phosphates yield better functionality in the human body for a variety of metallic implant devices including orthopaedic and dental prostheses. In the present study chemically and hence functionally gradient bioceramic coating was obtained by pulsed laser deposition method. Calcium phosphate bioactive ceramic coatings based on hydroxyapatite (HA) and tricalcium phosphate (TCP) were deposited over titanium substrate to produce gradation in physico-chemical characteristics and in vitro dissolution behaviour. Sintered targets of HA and α-TCP were deposited in a multi target laser deposition system. The obtained deposits were characterized by X-ray diffraction, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy was used to estimate the in vitro dissolution behaviour of coatings. The variation in mechanical property of the gradient layer was evaluated through scratch test and micro-indentation hardness. The bioactivity was examined in vitro with respect to the ability of HA layer to form on the surface as a result of contact with simulated body fluid. It could be inferred that chemically gradient functional bioceramic coating can be produced by laser deposition of multiple sintered targets with variable chemical composition.

Keywords

Apatite Simulated Body Fluid Pulse Laser Deposition Dissolution Behaviour Titanium Substrate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors gratefully acknowledge The Director and Head, Biomedical Technology Wing, SCTIMST for extending the research facilities to successfully carry out this work. Rajesh P acknowledges Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment (KSCSTE) for the research fellowship.

References

  1. 1.
    Niinomi M. Recent research and development in titanium alloys for biomedical applications and healthcare goods. Sci Technol Adv Mater. 2003;4:445–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Ratner BD. A perspective on titanium biocompatibility. In: Brunette DM, Tengvall P, Textor M, Thomsen P, editors. Titanium in medicine. Berlin: Springer; 2001. p. 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bannon BP, Mild EE. Titanium alloys for biomaterial application: an overview, titanium alloys in surgical implants. ASTM STP. 1983;796:7–15.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Hench Ll. Bioceramics: from concept to clinic. J Am Ceram Soc. 1991;74:1487–510.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Legeros RZ. Calcium phosphate materials in restorative dentistry: a review. Adv Dent Res. 1988;2(l):164–80.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lind M, Overgaard S, Bunger C, Soballe K. Improved bone anchorage of hydroxyapatite coated implants compared with tricalcium-phosphate coated implants in trabecular bone in dogs. Biomaterials. 1999;20:803–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kjeld S. Hydroxyapatite ceramic coating for bone implant fixation. Acta Orthop. 1993;64(1):1–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baltag I, Watanabe K, Kusakari H, Taguchi N, Miyakawa O, Kobayashi M, Ito N. Long-term changes of hydroxyapatite-coated dental implants. J Biomed Mater Res B. 2000;53:76–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Narayanan R, Seshadri SK, Kwon TY, Kim KH. Calcium phosphate-based coatings on titanium and its alloys. J Biomed Mater Res B. 2008;85B:279–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Lacefield William R. Material characteristics of uncoated/ceramic-coated implant materials. Adv Dent Res. 1999;13:21–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    MacDonald DE, Betts F, Stranick M, Doty S, Boskey AL. Physicochemical study of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite-coated implants in humans. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001;54:480–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Massaro C, Baker MA, Cosentino F, Ramires PA, Klose S, Milella E. Surface and biological evaluation of hydroxyapatite-based coatings on titanium deposited by different techniques. J Biomed Mater Res. 2001;58:651–7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Yang Y, Kim K-H, Ong JL. A review on calcium phosphate coatings produced using a sputtering process—an alternative to plasma spraying. Biomaterials. 2005;26:327–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Wen J, Leng Y, Chen J, Zhang C. Chemical gradient in plasma-sprayed HA coatings. Biomaterials. 2000;21:1339–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sun L, Berndt CC, Khor KA, Cheang HN, Gross KA. Surface characteristics and dissolution behavior of plasma-sprayed hydroxyapatite coating. J Biomed Mater Res. 2002;62:228–36.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cleries L, Fernandez-Pradas JM, Morenza JL. Bone growth on and resorption of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by pulsed laser deposition. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;49:43–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Zeng H, Lacefield WR. The study of surface transformation of pulsed laser deposited hydroxyapatite coatings. J Biomed Mater Res. 2000;50:239–47.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zeng H, Lacefield WR. XPS, EDX and FTIR analysis of pulsed laser deposited calcium phosphate bioceramic coatings: the effects of various process parameters. Biomaterials. 2000;21:23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Arias JL, Garcia-Sanz FJ, Mayor MB, Chiussi S, Pou J, Leon B, Perez-Amor M. Physicochemical properties of calcium phosphate produced by pulsed laser deposition at different water vapour pressures. Biomaterials. 1998;19:883–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Rajesh P, Muraleedharan CV, Komath M, Varma H. Laser surface modification of titanium substrate for pulsed laser deposition of highly adherent hydroxyapatite. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:1671–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kim H, Camata RP, Vohra YK, Lacefield WR. Control of phase composition in hydroxyapatite/tetracalcium phosphate biphasic thin coatings for biomedical applications. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2005;16(10):961–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Jalota S, Bhaduri SB, Cuneyt Tas A. In vitro testing of calcium phosphate (HA, TCP, and biphasic HA–TCP) whiskers. J Biomed Mater Res. 2006;78A:481–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aebli N, Krebs J, Schwenke D, Stich H, Schawalder P, Theis JC. Degradation of hydroxyapatite coating on a well-functioning femoral component. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 2003;85B:499–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Cleries L, Fernandez-Pradas JM, Sardin G, Morenza JL. Application of dissolution experiments to characterise the structure of pulsed laser-deposited calcium phosphate coatings. Biomaterials. 1999;20:1401–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Varma HK, Sivakumar R. Preparation and characterisation of free flowing hydroxyapatite powders. Phosphorous Res Bull. 1996;6:35–8.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    ISO 20502:2005(E). Fine ceramics (advanced ceramics, advanced technical ceramics)—determination of adhesion of ceramic coatings by scratch testing. Geneva: International organization for standardization (ISO); 2005.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Standard test method for knoop and Vickers hardness of materials (Designation: E384-10e2). doi: 10.1520/E0384-10E02.
  28. 28.
    Kokubo T, Takadama H. How useful is SBF in predicting in vivo bone bioactivity? Biomaterials. 2006;27:2907–15.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Rajesh P, Muraleedharan CV, Komath M, Varma H. Pulsed laser deposition of hydroxyapatite on titanium substrate with titania interlayer. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 2011;22:497–505.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Lu X, Leng Y. Theoretical analysis of calcium phosphate precipitation in simulated body fluid. Biomaterials. 2005;26:1097–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Bohner M, Lemaitre J. Leading opinion: can bioactivity be tested in vitro with SBF solution? Biomaterials. 2009;30:2175–9.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Cleries L, Fernandez-Pradas JM, Morenza JL. Behavior in simulated body fluid of calcium phosphate coatings obtained by laser ablation. Biomaterials. 2000;21:1861–5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rehman I, Bonfield W. Characterization of hydroxyapatite and carbonated apatite by photo acoustic FTIR spectroscopy. J Mater Sci Mater Med. 1997;8:1–4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. Rajesh
    • 1
  • C. V. Muraleedharan
    • 2
  • S. Sureshbabu
    • 1
  • Manoj Komath
    • 1
  • Harikrishna Varma
    • 1
  1. 1.Bioceramics Laboratory, Biomedical Technology WingSree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST)TrivandrumIndia
  2. 2.Division of Artificial Internal Organs, Biomedical Technology WingSree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST)TrivandrumIndia

Personalised recommendations