Journal of Materials Science: Materials in Medicine

, Volume 20, Issue 12, pp 2527–2540 | Cite as

Preparation, characterization and in vitro biological study of biomimetic three-dimensional gelatin–montmorillonite/cellulose scaffold for tissue engineering

  • Ahmed A. Haroun
  • Amira Gamal-Eldeen
  • David R. K. Harding


This work focused on studying the effect of blending gelatin (Gel) with Cellulose (Cel), in the presence of montmorillonite (MMT), on the swelling behavior, in vitro degradation and surface morphology. Additionally, the effect of the prepared biocomposites on the characteristics of the human osteosarcoma cells (Saos-2), including proliferation, scaffold/cells interactions, apoptosis and their potential of the cells to induce osteogenesis and differentiation was evaluated. The crosslinked biocomposites with glutaraldehyde (GA) or N,N-methylene-bisacrylamide (MBA) was prepared via an intercalation process and freeze-drying technique. Properties including SEM morphology, X-ray diffraction characterization and in vitro biodegradation were investigated. The successful generation of 3-D biomimetic porous scaffolds incorporating Saos-2 cells indicated their potential for de novo bone formation that exploits cell–matrix interactions. In vitro studies revealed that the scaffolds containing 12 and 6% MMT crosslinked by 5 and 0.5% GA seem to be the two most efficient and effective biodegradable scaffolds, which promoted Saos-2 cells proliferation, migration, expansion, adhesion, penetration, spreading, and differentiation, respectively. MMT improved cytocompatibility between the osteoblasts and the biocomposite. In vitro analysis indicated good biocompatibility of the scaffold and presents the scaffold as a new potential candidate as suitable biohybrid material for tissue engineering.


Tissue Engineering Proliferate Cell Nuclear Antigen Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Acridine Orange Human Osteosarcoma Cell 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Dr. A. A. Haroun would like to thank laboratories of Prof. D. R. K. Harding and Prof. G. Jameson at College of Sciences, Palmerston North, Massey University, New Zealand for support and generous assistance toward carrying out some of the necessary investigations in this work, during his scientific visit. Also, this work was supported by Center of Excellence for Advanced Sciences, National, Research Center, Cairo, Egypt.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Haroun
    • 1
  • Amira Gamal-Eldeen
    • 2
  • David R. K. Harding
    • 3
  1. 1.Chemical Industries Research DivisionCenter of Excellency for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, DokkiCairoEgypt
  2. 2.Cancer Biology LaboratoryCenter of Excellency for Advanced Sciences, National Research Centre, DokkiCairoEgypt
  3. 3.College of ScienceInstitute of Fundamental Sciences, Massey UniversityPalmerston NorthNew Zealand

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