Advertisement

Chemical-physical and preliminary biological properties of poly (2-hydroxyethylmethacrilate)/poly-(ɛ-caprolactone)/hydroxyapa- tite composite

  • C. Giordano
  • F. Causa
  • L. Di Silvio
  • L. Ambrosio
Article

Abstract

In the present study, the synthesis of a semi-Interpenetrating Polymer Network (semi-IPN) incorporating linear poly-(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) into cross-linked poly-(2-hydroxyethylmethacrilate) (PHEMA) reinforced with hydroxyapatite (HA) has been described. The aim of this study was to improve the mechanical and biological performance of the PHEMA/PCL in the hydrated state, for orthopaedic applications. The swelling behaviour, mechanical (compressive and tensile) and surface chemical-physical (morphology, stoichiometric composition) characterisation of the novel HA reinforced composite based on PHEMA/PCL polymer matrix, PHEMA/PCL 70/30 (w/w) + 50% (w/w) HA (PHEMA/PCL/HA), were evaluated. Furthermore, a preliminary in vitro biological evaluation was also performed on the composite using a fully characterised primary human osteoblast-like (HOB) cell model. The inclusion of HA in the composite improved the mechanical performance in the swollen state, with values of elastic modulus in a similar range to that of trabecular bone. The composite surfaces showed a porous, irregular topography with the presence of: oxygen (O), carbon (C); phosphorous (P); calcium (Ca) where the Ca/P ratio was 1.78. Biological evaluation indicated undetectable weight loss of the sample, no release of toxic leachables from the composite and pH values within an acceptable range for cell growth. The results indicate that the novel PHEMA/PCL/HA composite is a promising candidate as filler or substitute for spongy bone for orthopaedic applications.

Keywords

PHEMA Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy Analysis Swell State Spongy Bone Compressive Ultimate Strength 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    P. A. DAVIS, S. J. HUANG, L. NICOLAIS and L. AMBROSIO, in “High performance Biomaterials”, edited by M. Szycher, (Technomic Publishing: Lancaster, P.A., 1991) p. 343.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. S. HOFFMAN, in “Polymers in Medicine and Surgery”, edited by R. Kronenthal, et al. (New York: Plenum Press, 1975) Vol. 8.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. SALERNITANO and C. MIGLIARESI, Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Biomechanics 1(2003) 3.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Z. LEGEROS and J. P. LEGEROS, in “An Introduction to Bioceramics”, edited by. L. L. Hench and Wilson J., (World scientific, Singapore, 1993) p. 139.Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. OZAWA and S. KAGUSAI, Biomaterials 17(1996) 23.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    K. DE GROOT, J. G. C. WOLKE and J. JANSEN, J. Engin. Med. 212-H(1998) 137.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    L. DI SILVIO and N. GURAV, in “Human Cell Culture”, edited by M. R. Koller, B. O. Palsonn and J. R. W. Masters (Kluwer Academic Publisher, U.K, 2001) Vol 5p. 221.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    E. FERNANDEZ, F. J. GIL, M. P. GINEBRA, F. C. M. DRIESSENS, J. A. LANNELL and S. M. BEST, J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Med. 10(1999) 169.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    C. MIGLIARESI, L. NICODEMO and L. NICOLAIS, in “Hydrogels in Medicine and Pharmacy”, edited by CRC Press (Inc. Boca Raton, Florida, 2000) Vol 3, p. 83.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    W. C. HAYES, in “Basic Orthopaedic Biomechanics”, edited by V. C. Mow and W. C. Hayes, (New York: Raven Press, 1991) p. 93.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    S. C. COWIN, in “Bone Mechanics”, edited by S.C. Cowin (Boca raton, CRC press, 1989) p. 97.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. J. YASZEMISKI, R. G. PAYNE, W. C. HAYES, R. LANGER and A. G. MIKOS, Biomaterials 17(1996) 175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    P. A. NETTI, J. C. SHELTON, P. A. REVELL, C. PIRIE, S. SMITH, L. AMBROSIO, L. NICOLAIS and W. BONFIELD, Biomaterials 14(1993) 1098.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    J. D. CURREY, – Proc. Inst. Mech. Engin.– 212 part-H.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. S. CURTIS and C. D. WILKINSON, Biochem. Soc. Symp. 65(1999) 15.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. S. CURTIS and C. D. WILKINSON, J. Biomater Sci. Polym. Ed. 9(1998) 1313.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    C. LARSSON, P. THOMSEN, J. LAUSMAA, M.RODHAL, B. KASEMO and L. E. ERICON, Biomaterials 15(1994) 1061.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    S. A. HARRIS, R.J. ENGER, B. L. RIGGS and T. C. SPELSBERG, J. Bone Miner. Res. 10(1995) 178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    B. KASEMO and J. LAUSMAA, Crit. Rev. Biocompat. 2(1986) 335.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    B. KASEMO and J. LAUSMAA, Environ. Health Prospects 102(1994) 241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    P. K. STEPHENSON, M. A. FREEMAN, P. A. REVELL, J. GERMAIN, M. TUKE and C. J. PIRIE, J. Arthoplast. 6(1991) 51.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. OHGUSHI, Y. DOHI, T. YOSHIKAWA, S. TAMAI, S. TABATA K. OKUNAGA, et al., J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 32(1996) 341.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    H. OHGUSHI, Y. DOHI, T. YOSHIKAWA, S. TAMAI, T. S. ABATA and Y. SUWA, J. Biomed. Mat. Res. 32(1996) 333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    A. S. POSNER and F. BETTS, Acc. Chem. Res. 58(1975) 273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. J. DALBY, M. V. KAYSER, W. BONFIELD and L. DI SILVIO, Biomaterials 23(2002) 681.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    P. S. THEOCARIS, G. C. PAPANOCOLAOU and E. A. KONTOU, J. Polym. Sci. 28(1983) 3145.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    G. C. PAPANOCOLAOU and R. MERCOGLIANO, Plast. Rubb. Process. Applic. 6(1986) 229.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    A. EL-GHANNAM, P. DUCHYNE and I. SHAPIRO, in “Bioceramics 6”, edited by P. Ducheyne and D. Christiansen, p. 143.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • C. Giordano
    • 1
  • F. Causa
    • 2
  • L. Di Silvio
    • 3
  • L. Ambrosio
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryMaterials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”MilanoItaly
  2. 2.Institute of Composite and Biomedical MaterialsNaplesItaly
  3. 3.Guy’s, King’s and St Thomas’ Medical and Dental InstituteKing’s College LondonLondonUK

Personalised recommendations