Analysis of rheological properties of bone cements

  • M. K. D. NicholasEmail author
  • M. G. J. Waters
  • K. M. Holford
  • G. Adusei


The rheological properties of three commercially available bone cements, CMW 1, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC, were investigated. Testing was undertaken at both 25 and 37 °C using an oscillating parallel plate rheometer. Results showed that the three high viscosity cements exhibited distinct differences in curing rate, with CMW 1 curing in 8.7 min, Palacos R and Cemex ISOPLASTIC in 13 min at 25 °C. Furthermore it was found that these curing rates were strongly temperature dependent, with curing rates being halved at 37 °C. By monitoring the change of viscosity with time over the entire curing process, the results showed that these cements had differing viscosity profiles and hence exhibit very different handling characteristics. However, all the cements reached the same maximum viscosity of 75 × 103 Pa s. Also, the change in elastic/viscous moduli and tan δ with time, show the cements changing from a viscous material to an elastic solid with a clear peak in the viscous modulus during the latter stages of curing. These results give valuable information about the changes in rheological properties for each commercial bone cement, especially during the final curing process.


PMMA Rheological Property Bone Cement Handling Time Viscous Modulus 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. K. D. Nicholas
    • 1
    Email author
  • M. G. J. Waters
    • 2
  • K. M. Holford
    • 1
  • G. Adusei
    • 2
  1. 1.School of EngineeringCardiff UniversityCardiffUK
  2. 2.Department of Dental Health Biological Sciences, School of DentistryWales College of Medicine, Cardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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