Synthesis and characterization of hydroxyapatite by microwave heating using CaSO4·2H2O and Ca(OH)2 as calcium source

  • Ion Teoreanu
  • Maria Preda
  • Alina Melinescu


In this paper, synthesis of hydroxyapatite (HAp) in the absence or presence of 1.05 wt% magnesium oxide, as sintering additive, by heating in a microwave oven was studied. For this purpose, CaSO4·2H2O, Ca(OH)2, Mg(OH)2 and (NH4)2HPO4 were used as raw materials. The total chemical reactions for all the studied compositions were observed after a 3 h microwave treatment. In case of pure hydroxyapatite, a powder with needle-like grains results. In the presence of Mg(OH)2, the (Mg, Ca2)·O·(HPO4)2·H2O hydrated phosphate is formed besides hydroxyapatite. Pure hydroxyapatite, thermally treated at 1,200 °C, mostly transforms in β-Ca3P2O8. By adding MgO into the precursor mixture, hydroxyapatite was stabilised, and found in a much greater proportion at 1,200 °C. After the thermal treatment, the hydroxyapatite, analysed by electronic microscopy, shows a prismatic morphology originating in its initial state.


Hydroxyapatite CaSO4 Microwave Heating Magnesium Hydroxide Tricalcium Phosphate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    I. TEOREANU, E. ANDRONESCU and A. FOLEA, Ceram. Intern. 22 (1996) 305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    P. PARHI, A. RAMANAN and A. R. RAY, Mater. Lett. 58 (2004) 3610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    S. KOMARNENI and H. KATSUKI, Pure Appl. Chem. 74 (2002) 1537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    D. S. R. KRISHNA, C. K. CHAITANYA, S. K. SESHADRI and T. S. S. KUMAR, Trends Biomater. Artif. Organs. 16 (2002) 15 Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. Y. YOON, Y. M. PARK, S. S. PARK, R. STEVENS and H. C. PARK, Mater. Chem. Phys. 91 (2005) 48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    H. KATSUKI and S. FURUTA, J. Amer. Ceram. Soc. 82 (1999) 2257CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. PREDA, A MELINESCU, I TEOREANU and M ZAHARESCU, Rom. J. Mater. 34 (2004) 3Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    L. C. CHOW, L. SUN and B. HOCKEY, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109 (2004) 543Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    M. MARCOVIC, B. O. FOWLER and M. S. TUNG, J. Res. Natl. Inst. Stand. Technol. 109 (2004) 553Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    A. LOPEZ-MACIPE, R. RODRIGUEZ-CLEMENTE, A. HIDALGO-LOPEZ, I. ARITA, M. V. GARCIA GARDUNO, E. RIVERA and V. M. CASTANO, J. Mater. Synth. Process 6 (1998) 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    I. REHMAN and W. BONFIELD, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 8 (1997) 1CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    A. SIDDHARTAN, K. S. SESHADRI and T. S. SAMPATH KUMAR, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 15 (2004) 1279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. WEI, J. H. EVANS, T. BOSTROM and L. GRONDHL, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 14 (2003) 311CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. RAYNAUD, E. CHAMPION, D. BERNACHE-ASSOLLANT and P. THOMAS, Biomaterials 23 (2002) 1065CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. TAMAI, M. NAKAMURA, T. ISSIKI, K. NISIHIO, H. ENDOH and A. NAKAHIRA, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 14 (2003) 617CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. SLOSARCZYK and J. BIALOSKORSKI, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 9 (1998) 103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    I. R. GIBSON, S. KE, S. M. BEST and W. BONFIELD, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 12 (2001) 163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    M. A. FANOVICI and J. M. PORTO LOPEZ, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 9 (1998) 53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. N. KUMTA, Ch. SFEIR, D. H. LEE, D. OLTON and D. CHOI, Acta Biomaterialia 1 (2005) 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    I. TEOREANU, M. PREDA and A. MELINESCU, Rev. Chim. 56 (2005) 1205Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    I. TEOREANU, M. PREDA and A. MELINESCU, Key Eng. Mater. 264–268 (2004) 2091CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    R. Z. LEGEROS, S. LIN, R. ROHANIZADEH, D. MIJARES and J. P. LEGEROS, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Med. 14 (2003) 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    T. A. KURIAKOSE, S. N. KALCURA, M. PALANICHAMY, D. ARIVUOLI, K. DIERKS, G. BOCELLI and C. BETZEL, J. Cryst. Growth, 263 (2004) 517CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Science and Engineering of Oxide Materials and NanomaterialsPolitehnica University of BucharestBucharestRomania

Personalised recommendations