Wettability, water sorption and water solubility of seven silicone elastomers used for maxillofacial prostheses

  • Anna Karin Hulterström
  • Anders Berglund
  • I. Eystein Ruyter


The wettability, water sorption and solubility of silicone elastomers used for maxillofacial prostheses were studied. The hypothesis was, that a material that has absorbed water would show an increase in the wettability and thus also the surface free energy of the material.

Seven silicone elastomers, both addition- and condensation type polymers, were included. Five specimens of each material were subjected to treatment according to ISO standards 1567:1999 and 10477: 2004 for water sorption and solubility. The volumes of the specimens were measured according to Archimedes principle. The contact angle was measured with a contact angle goniometer at various stages of the sorption/solubility test.

Wettability changed over the test period, but not according to theory. The addition type silicones showed little or no sorption and solubility, but two of the condensation type polymers tested had a significant sorption and solubility. This study showed that condensation type polymers may show too large volumetric changes when exposed to fluids, and therefore should no longer be used in prosthetic devices. The results of this study also suggests that it might be of interest to test sorption and solubility of materials that are to be implanted, since most of the materials had some solubility.


Contact Angle Wettability Surface Free Energy Water Sorption Dynamic Contact Angle 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



The authors thank Torbjørn Knarvang, NIOM- Scandinavian Institute of Dental Materials, for his invaluable assistance in carrying out the contact angle measurements and the measurements in the sorption and solubility tests.


  1. 1.
    D. J. CASTLEBERRY, In Dental Biomaterials, Research Priorities edited by L.W. Wachtel. (Department of Health, Education and Welfare Publication No. 74-548, Washington DC, August 7–8; 1973) p. 255Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    D. J. MOORE, Z. R. GLASER, M. J. TABACCO, G. LINEBAUGH, J. Prosthet. Dent. 38 (1977) 319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    B.F. CONROY. Co-ordinator. In Proceedings of the International Congress on Maxillo-facial Prosthetics and Technology 1978 (1979); p. 218Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. CANTOR, R. L. WEBBER, L. STROUD, G. RYGE, J. Prosthet. Dent. 21 (1969) 324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    ISO standard 14949:2001 Implants for Surgery—Two-Part Addition-Cure Silicone ElastomersGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    A. K. HULTERSTRÖM, I. E. RUYTER, Int. J. Prosthodont. 12 (1999) 498Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. G. J. WATERS, R. G. JAGGER, V. JEROLIMOV, K. R. WILLIAMS, J. Prosthet. Dent. 74 (1995) 644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    P. H. MONSÉNÉGO, A. BASZKIN, M. De LOURDES COSTA, J. LEJOYEUX, J. Prosthet. Dent. 62 (1989) 308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    E. M. VERES, J. F. WOLFAARDT, P. J. BECKER, J. Prosthet. Dent. 63 (1990) 466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    M. G. J. WATERS, R. G. JAGGER, G. L. POLYZOIS, J. Prosthet. Dent. 81 (1999) 439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    J. Y. CHAI, T. -C. YEUNG, Int. J. Prosthodont. 4 (1991) 555Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    G. L. POLYZOIS, R. W. WINTER, G. D. STAFFORD, Biomaterials 12 (1991) 79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    J. VAN DIJK, F. HERKSTRÖTER, H. BUSSCHER, A. WEERKAMP, H. JANSEN, J. ARENDS, J. Clin. Periodontol. 14, (1987) 300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    M. G. J. WATERS, D. W. WILLIAMS, R. G. JAGGER and M. A. O. LEWIS, J. Prosthet. Dent. 77, (1997) 306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    S. C. DEXTER, J. D. SULLIVAN Jr, J. WILLIAMS III and S. W. WATSON, Appl. Microbiol. 30, (1975) 298Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    ISO 1567:1999 Denture Base Polymers Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    ISO 10477:1992 Dentistry—Polymer Based Crown and Bridge Materials Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    R. J. GOOD, In Contact Angle, Wettability and Adhesion. Festschrift in Honor of Professor Robert J Good, edited by K. L. Mittal (Netherlands VSP BV: Zeist, 1993) p. 3Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    R. E. JOHNSON and R.H. DETTRE, In Surface and Colloid Science, edited by E. Matijevic (New York: Wiley-Interscience, 1969) p. 85Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    T. R. NEU, G. J. VERKERKE, I. F. HERRMANN and H. K. SCHUTTE, J. Appl. Bacteriol. 76, (1994) 521Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    T. R. NEU, H. C. VAN DER MEI, H. J. BUSSCHER, F. DIJK and G. J. VERKERKE, Biomaterials 14, (1993) 459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    H. J. BUSSCHER, G. I. GEERTSEMA-DOORNBUSCH and H. C. VAN DER MEI, J. Biomed. Mater. Res. 34, (1997) 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    E. P. J. M. EVERAERT, H. F. MATHIEU, B. VAN DE BELT GRITTER, A. J. G. E. PEETERS, G. J. VERKERKE, H. C. VAN DER MEI and H. J. BUSSCHER, Ach. Otolartngol. Head. Neck. Surg. 125, (1999) 1329Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    F. KAWANO, E. R. DOOTZ, A. KORAN III and R. G. CRAIG, J. Prosthet. Dent. 72, (1994) 393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    C. J. ANDRES, S. P. HAUG, D. T. BROWN and G. BERNAL, J. Prosthet. Dent. 68, (1992) 519CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Karin Hulterström
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anders Berglund
    • 2
  • I. Eystein Ruyter
    • 1
  1. 1.NIOM—Scandinavian Institute of Dental MaterialsHaslumNorway
  2. 2.Department of Odontology/Dental Technicians Programme, Faculty of MedicineUmeå UniversityUmeaSweden

Personalised recommendations