Influence of Sr/Nd partial replacement on fundamental properties of Bi-2223 superconducting system


This comprehensive work aims to examine the change in flux pinning mechanism, physical, mechanical, and structural characteristics of pure and Sr-site Nd-substituted Bi1.8Pb0.35Sr1.9−yNdyCa2.2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) systems. The magnetoresistivity performances for all the samples are carried out by magnetotransport experiments in the existence of external magnetic field strength intervals 0–7 T. It is found that the increment of Nd/Sr substitution amount in bulk Bi-2223 system retrogrades the pinning capability of thermal flux motions for interlayer Josephson junction between the isolated grains. Similarly, the coupling probabilities of copper pairs and potential energy barriers are significantly diminished by increasing Nd impurity. This is in association with the enhancement of permanent structural problems in the crystal structure. Therefore, the excessive Nd inclusions improve the reattached linear/split pancake-like nature. In this regard, the best magnetic performance quantities are obtained for the pure sample. Besides, the SEM images show that the grain connectivity and surface morphology damage significantly with the Nd impurity. Additionally, the experimental microhardness findings conducted at various external loads (0.245–2.940 N) display that the Nd purity in the superconducting system degrades dramatically the key design mechanical features. Besides, we analyze the mechanical characteristic properties founded on the theoretical approaches with the proportional sample resistance, elastic/plastic deformation, and Hays–Kendall methods. The results obtained show that the Nd purity causes the indentation size effect behavior to decrease dramatically for all the samples. Furthermore, the findings of Hays–Kendall method are noticed to much more agree with the real hardness parameters. Thus, the Hays–Kendall model is the best methods to find the load-independent Vickers hardness values for the Sr-site Nd-substituted Bi1.8Pb0.35Sr1.9−yNdyCa2.2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) systems. Moreover, in the dynamic microhardness measurements, the contact depth (hc), elastic modulus (Er), and load (Pmax) of all the samples are experimentally recorded for the first time. The results reveal that the mechanical properties depend strongly on the load and Nd impurity level.

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This study is supported by Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit (Project No: 2016.03.02.1024).

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Dogruer, M., Aksoy, C., Yildirim, G. et al. Influence of Sr/Nd partial replacement on fundamental properties of Bi-2223 superconducting system. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2021).

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