This comprehensive work aims to examine the change in flux pinning mechanism, physical, mechanical, and structural characteristics of pure and Sr-site Nd-substituted Bi1.8Pb0.35Sr1.9−yNdyCa2.2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) systems. The magnetoresistivity performances for all the samples are carried out by magnetotransport experiments in the existence of external magnetic field strength intervals 0–7 T. It is found that the increment of Nd/Sr substitution amount in bulk Bi-2223 system retrogrades the pinning capability of thermal flux motions for interlayer Josephson junction between the isolated grains. Similarly, the coupling probabilities of copper pairs and potential energy barriers are significantly diminished by increasing Nd impurity. This is in association with the enhancement of permanent structural problems in the crystal structure. Therefore, the excessive Nd inclusions improve the reattached linear/split pancake-like nature. In this regard, the best magnetic performance quantities are obtained for the pure sample. Besides, the SEM images show that the grain connectivity and surface morphology damage significantly with the Nd impurity. Additionally, the experimental microhardness findings conducted at various external loads (0.245–2.940 N) display that the Nd purity in the superconducting system degrades dramatically the key design mechanical features. Besides, we analyze the mechanical characteristic properties founded on the theoretical approaches with the proportional sample resistance, elastic/plastic deformation, and Hays–Kendall methods. The results obtained show that the Nd purity causes the indentation size effect behavior to decrease dramatically for all the samples. Furthermore, the findings of Hays–Kendall method are noticed to much more agree with the real hardness parameters. Thus, the Hays–Kendall model is the best methods to find the load-independent Vickers hardness values for the Sr-site Nd-substituted Bi1.8Pb0.35Sr1.9−yNdyCa2.2Cu3Ox (Bi-2223) systems. Moreover, in the dynamic microhardness measurements, the contact depth (hc), elastic modulus (Er), and load (Pmax) of all the samples are experimentally recorded for the first time. The results reveal that the mechanical properties depend strongly on the load and Nd impurity level.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
W.E. Pickett, Electronic-structure of the high-temperature oxide superconductors. Rev. Mod. Phys. 61, 433–512 (1989)
A. Biju, R.P. Aloysius, U. Syamaprasad, Enhanced critical current density in Gd added (Bi, Pb)-2212 bulk superconductor. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18, 1454–1459 (2005)
M.E. Takayama, High-pressure synthesis of homologous series of high critical temperature (Tc) superconductors. Chem. Mater. 10, 2686–2698 (1998)
H. Yamauchi, M. Karppinen, Application of high-pressure techniques: stabilization and oxidation-state control of novel superconductive and related multi-layered copper oxides. Supercond. Sci. Techol 13, R33–R52 (2000)
B.R. Lehndorff, High-Tc Superconductors for Magnet and Energy Technology Superconductors for Magnet and Energy Technology (Springer, New York, 2001).
K. Koyama, S. Kanno, S. Noguchi, Electrical, magnetic and superconducting properties of the quenched Bi2Sr2Ca1-xNdxCu2O8+y system. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 29, L53–L56 (1990)
H. Miao, M. Meinesz, B. Czabai, J. Parrell, S. Hong, Microstructure and J(c) improvements in multifilamentary Bi-2212/Ag wires for high field magnet applications. AIP. Conf. Proc. 986, 423–430 (2008)
L. Zhou, P. Zhang, P. Ji, K. Wang, X. Wu, The properties of YBCO superconductors prepared by a new approach-the powder melting process. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 3, 490–492 (1990)
K. Salama, V. Selymanickam, L. Gao, K. Sun, High-current density in bulk YBa2Cu3Ox superconductor. Appl. Phys. Lett. 54, 2352–2354 (1989)
T. Egi, J.G. Wen, K. Kuroda, H. Unoki, N. Koshizuka, High-current density of Nd(Ba, Nd)2Cu3O7-x single-crystal. Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2406–2408 (1995)
S. Jin, T.H. Tiefel, R.C. Sherwood, M.E. Davis, R.B. Van Dover, G.W. Kammlott, R.A. Fasrnacht, H.D. Keith, High critical currents in Y-Ba-Cu-O superconductors. Appl. Phys. Lett. 52, 2074–2076 (1988)
G. Yildirim, Determination of optimum diffusion annealing temperature for Au surface-layered Bi-2212 ceramics and dependence of transition temperatures on disorders. J. Alloys Compd. 699, 247–255 (2017)
O.O. Oduleye, S.J. Penn, N.M. Alford, The mechanical properties of (Bi-Pb) SrCaCuO Supercond. Sci. Technol 11, 858–865 (1998)
W.F. Smith, Principles of Materials Science and Engineering (McGraw-Hill, New York, 2001).
E. Bruneel, J. Degrieck, I. Van Driessche, S. Hoste, Mechanical properties of Bi-2223/Ag bulk composites. Physica C 372, 1063–1066 (2002)
E. Haque, M.A. Hossain, Elastic, magnetic, transport and electronic properties of no centrosymmetric M2Mo3N (M = Fe Co, Ni, Rh): a first-principles study. J. Alloys Comp. 748, 117–126 (2018)
K.Y. Choi, I.S. Jo, S.C. Han, Y.H. Han, T.H. Sung, M.H. Jung, G.S. Park, S.I. Lee, High and uniform critical current density for large-size YBa2Cu3O7−δ single crystals. Curr. Appl. Phys. 11, 1020–1023 (2011)
H.H. Xu, L. Cheng, S.B. Yan, D.J. Yu, L.S. Guo, X. Yao, Recycling failed bulk YBCO superconductors using the NdBCO/YBCO/MgO film-seeded top-seeded melt growth method. J. Appl. Phys. 111, 103910 (2012)
O. Ozturk, E. Asikuzun, M. Coskunyurek, N. Soylu, A. Hancerliogullari, A. Varilci, C. Terzioglu, The effect of Nd2O3 addition on superconducting and structural properties and activation energy calculation of Bi-2212 superconducting system. J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 25, 444–453 (2014)
R.P. Aloysius, P. Guruswamy, U. Syamaprasad, Enhanced flux pinning in (Bi, Pb)-2223 superconductor by Nd addition. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 18, 427–431 (2005)
M. Abbas, A. Abdulridh, A. Jassim, F. Hashim, Physical properties of nanoparticles Nd added Bi1.7Pb0.3Sr2Ca2Cu3Oy superconductors. AIP Conf. Proc. 1968, 030009 (2018)
K. Kumari, R.K. Singhal, K.B. Garg, M. Heinonen, J. Leiro, A. Gupta, S.K. Agarwal, Photoemission study of Ba2+ and Nd3+ substitution for Ca2+ in the BSCCO (2212) superconducting system. Indian J. Phys. 77A, 333–339 (2003)
O. Ozturk, E. Asikuzun, S. Kaya, G. Yildirim, M.B. Turkoz, A. Kilic, Improvement of the nature of indentation size effect of Bi-2212 superconducting matrix by doped Nd inclusion and theoretical modeling of new matrix. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 1403–1412 (2014)
H. Bagiah, S.A. Halim, S.K. Chen, K.P. Lim, M.M. Awang Kechik, Effects of Rare Earth Nanoparticles (M = Sm2O3, Ho2O3, Nd2O3) addition on the microstructure and superconducting transition of Bi1.6Pb0.4Sr2Ca2Cu3O10+δ. Ceram. Sains Malays. 45, 643–651 (2016)
R.P. Aloysius, P. Guruswamy, U. Syamaprasad, Enhanced critical current density in (Bi, Pb)-2223 superconductor by Nd addition in low percentages. Physica C 426, 556–562 (2005)
B. Ozkurt, A. Ekicibil, M.A. Aksan, B. Ozcelik, M.E. Yakıncı, K. Kiymac, Structural and Physical Properties of Nd Substituted Bismuth Cuprates Bi1.7Pb0.3−xNdxSr2Ca3Cu4O12+y. J. Low Temp. Phys. 149, 105–118 (2007)
R. Awad, A.I. Abou-Aly, M.M.H. Abdel Gawad, I.G. Eldeen, The influence of SnO2 nano-particles addition on the Vickers microhardness of (Bi, Pb)-2223 superconducting phase. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 25, 739–745 (2012)
N.K. Saritekin, M. Pakdil, G. Yildirim, M. Oz, T. Turgay, Decrement in metastability with Zr nanoparticles inserted in Bi-2223 superconducting system and working principle of hybridization mechanism. J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 27, 956–965 (2016)
S. Martin, M. Gurvitch, C.E. Rice, A.F. Hebard, P.L. Gammel, R.M. Fleming, A.T. Fiory, Nonlinear temperature-dependence of the normal-state resistivity in YBa2Cu4O8ş-y films. Phys. Rev. B 39, 9611–9613 (1989)
D.M. Newns, P.C. Pattnaik, C.C. Tsuei, Role of vanhove singularity in high temperature superconductors-mean field. Phys. Rev. B 43, 3075–3084 (1991)
G. Yildirim, Beginning point of metal to insulator transition for Bi-2223 superconducting matrix doped with Eu nanoparticles. J. Alloys Compd. 578, 526–535 (2013)
A.E. Koshelev, P. LeDoussal, V.M. Vinokur, Columnar defects and vortex fluctuations in layered superconductors. Phys. Rev. Condens. Matter. B 53, R8855–R8858 (1996)
A.A. Abrikosov, L.P. Gor’kov, Contribution to the theory of superconducting alloys with paramagnetic impurities. Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz 39(1960), 1781–1796 (1960)
M.B. Turkoz, S. Nezir, A. Varilci, G. Yildirim, M. Akdogan, C. Terzioglu, Experimental and theoretical approaches on magnetoresistivity of Lu-doped Y-123 superconducting ceramics. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron 24, 1536–1545 (2013)
M.D. Sumption, M. Bhatia, S.X. Dou, M. Rindfliesch, M. Tomsic, L. Arda, M. Ozdemir, Y. Hascicek, E.W. Collings, Irreversibility field and flux pinning in MgB2 with and without SiC additions. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 17, 1180–1184 (2004)
M.S. Ososfky, R.J. Soulen, S.A. Wolf, J.M. Broto, J.M. Rakoto, J.C. Ousset, G. Coffe, S. Askenazy, P. Pari, I. Bozovic, J.N. Eckstein, G.F. Virshup, Anomalous temperature dependence of the upper critical magnetic field in Bi-Sr-Cu-O. Phys. Rev. Lett. 71, 2315–2318 (1993)
H. Kitaguchi, A. Matsumoto, H. Hatakeyama, H. Kumakura, High temperature performance of MgB2 powder-in-tube composite tapes. Supercond. Sci. Technol. 17, S486–S489 (2004)
M. Dogruer, G. Yildirim, C. Terzioglu, Effect of annealing temperature on magnetoresistivity, activation energy, irreversibility and upper critical field of the Cu-diffused MgB2 bulk superconductors. J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 24, 392–401 (2013)
X.J. Chen, V.V. Struzhkin, Z.G. Wu, H.Q. Lin, R.J. Hemley, H.K. Mao, Unified picture of the oxygen isotope effect in cuprate superconductors. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 104, 3732–3735 (2007)
M. Dogruer, C. Terzioglu, G. Yildirim, M. Pakdil, Y. Zalaoglu, Decrement of crack propagation in bulk Bi-2223 superconducting ceramics with Sn-diffusion annealing temperature. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 26, 6013–6019 (2015)
M. Dogruer, C. Terzioglu, G. Yildirim, O. Gorura, Significant change in mechanical properties of YBa2Cu3O7−xbulk superconductors diffused with Sn nanoparticles. J. Supercond. Nov. Magn. 27, 755–761 (2014)
M. Dogruer, F. Karaboga, G. Yildirim, C. Terzioglu, Comparative study on indentation size effect, indentation cracks and superconducting properties of undoped and MgB2 doped Bi-2223 ceramics. J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 24, 2327–2338 (2013)
O. Ozturk, M. Erdem, E. Asikuzun, O. Yildiz, G. Yildirim, A. Varilci, C. Terzioglu, Investigation of indentation size effect (ISE) and micro-mechanical properties of Lu added Bi2Sr2CaCu2Oy ceramic superconductors. J. Mater. Sci: Mater. Electron. 24, 230–238 (2013)
W. Abdeen, S. Marahba, R. Awad, A.I. Abou Aly, I.H. Ibrahim, M. Matar, Electrical and mechanical properties of (Bi, Pb) -2223 substituted by holmium. J. Adv. Ceram. 5, 54–69 (2016)
O. Uzun, U. Kolemen, S. Çelebi, N. Guclu, Modulus and hardness evaluation of polycrystalline superconductors by dynamic microindentation technique. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 25, 969–977 (2005)
A. Toplu, I. Karaca, U. Kolemen, Calculation of true hardness value of Zn added (BiPb)SrCaCuO superconductor by different models. Ceram. Int. 41, 953–960 (2015)
O. Sahin, O. Uzun, M.S. Lizer, H. Gocmez, U. Kolemen, Dynamic hardness and elastic modulus calculation of porous SiAlON ceramics using depth-sensing indentation technique. J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 28, 1235–1242 (2008)
I. Karaca, O. Uzun, U. Kolemen, F. Yılmaz, O. Sahin, Effects of ZnO addition on mechanical properties of Bi1.84Pb0.34Sr1.91Ca2.03Cu3.06O10 prepared by a wet technique. J. Alloys Compd. 476, 486–491 (2009)
S. Kaya, D. Akcan, O. Ozturk, L. Arda, Enhanced mechanical properties of yttrium doped ZnO nanoparticles as determined by instrumented indentation technique. Ceram. Int. 44, 10306–10314 (2018)
R. Terzioglu, The structural and mechanical properties of Gd and Nd substituted double layered LaCaMnO7 ceramics. J. Alloys Compd. 797, 1173–1180 (2019)
This study is supported by Bolu Abant Izzet Baysal University Scientific Research Project Coordination Unit (Project No: 2016.03.02.1024).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Dogruer, M., Aksoy, C., Yildirim, G. et al. Influence of Sr/Nd partial replacement on fundamental properties of Bi-2223 superconducting system. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-021-05417-4