Effect of the solution chemistry on the film growth of hybrid MAPbI3 perovskites


This work is focused on studying the chemical equilibrium phenomena of precursor solutions used to growth hybrid inorganic–organic MAPbI3 perovskite films. Special emphasis was made on the effect of important variables such as solvents type, ligands, temperature, and concentration on the chemical equilibrium and subsequent effect on film morphology. These results provided important information to develop a novel synthesis route based on chemical bath deposition (CBD) method that allowed to grow thin films of MAPbI3 with grain sizes greater than 10 μm and high degree of crystalline ordering, features that led to getting MAPbI3 films with improved stability. The proposed CBD method, in addition to being novel for the growth in solution of MAPbI3 thin films, is scalable, low cost, and promising, since it offers great prospects for the manufacture of highly stable perovskite hybrid solar cells.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10


  1. 1.

    A. Binek, M.L. Petrus, N. Huber, H. Bristow, Y. Hu, T. Bein, P. Docampo, Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8(20), 12881–12886 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    National Center for Photovoltaics at the National NREL, Research cell efficiency records. https://www.nrel.gov/pv/assets/pdfs/best-research-cell-efficiencies.20200925.pdf

  3. 3.

    J.P. Correa-Baena, M. Saliba, T. Buonassisi, M. Grätzel, A. Abate, W. Tress, A. Hagfeldt, Science 358, 739–744 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    F. Matteocci, L. Cinà, E. Lamanna, S. Cacovich, G. Divitini, P.A. Midgley, C. Ducati, A. Di Carlo, Nano Energy 30, 162–172 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    Y. Sun, X. Fang, Z. Ma, L. Xu, Y. Lu, Q. Yu, N. Yuan, J.J. Ding, J. Ding. Mater. Chem. C. 5, 8682–8687 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    G. Liu, H. Zheng, X. Xu, L.-Z. Zhu, X. Zhang, X. Pan, Chem. Mater 30(21), 7691–7698 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    C. Zhang, L. Gao, S. Teo, Z. Guo, Z. Xu, S. Zhao, T. Ma, Sustain. Energy Fuels 2, 2419–2428 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    X. Li, J. Yang, Q. Jiang, H. Lai, S. Li, J. Xin, W. Chu, J. Hou, ACS Nano 12(6), 5605–5614 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S.N. Habisreutingera, D.P. McMeekin, H.J. Snaith, R.J. Nicholas, APL Mater. 4, 091503 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Q. Wang, B. Chen, Y. Liu, Y. Deng, Y. Bai, Q. Dong, J. Huang, Energy Environ. Sci. 10, 516–522 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    X.Z. Chen, B. Turedi, A.Y. Alsalloum, C. Yang, X. Zheng, I. Gereige, A. AlSaggaf, O.F. Mohammed, O.M. Bakr, ACS Energy Lett. 4(6), 1258–1259 (2019)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    J.C. Hamill Jr., J. Schwartz, Y.-L. Loo, Influence of solvent coordination on hybrid organic–inorganic Perovskite formation. ACS Energy Lett. 3(1), 92–97 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    N.J. Jeon, J.H. Noh, Y.C. Kim, W.S. Yang, S. Ryu, S.I. Seok, Solvent engineering for high-performance inorganic–organic hybrid perovskite solar cells. Nat. Mater. 13, 897–903 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    V. Gutmann, Coordination Chemistry in Non-Aqueous Solutions (Springer, Viena, 1968), p. 19

    Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    S. Paek, P. Schouwink, E.N. Athanasopoulou, K.T. Cho, G. Grancini, Y. Lee, Y. Zhang, F. Stellacci, M.K. Nazeeruddin, P. Gao, Chem. Mater. 29, 3490–3498 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    M.I. Saidaminov, A.L. Abdelhady et al., Nat. Commun. 6(7586), 1–6 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    D. Shi, V. Adinolfi, Sci. Rep. 347(6261), 519–522 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    J.M. Frost, K.T. Butler, F. Brivio, C.H. Hendon, M. van Schilfgaarde, A. Walsh, Atomistic origins of high-performance in hybrid halide perovskite solar cells. Nano Lett. 14, 2584 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by Colciencias (Contract #184/2016), Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá, (Proy. 20287 supported by DIB), and Universidad Industrial de Santander (Postdoctoral supporting program of VIE).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to C. A. Otálora.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Otálora, C.A., Gordillo, G., Herrera, L. et al. Effect of the solution chemistry on the film growth of hybrid MAPbI3 perovskites. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-021-05397-5

Download citation