Processing optimization of SiO2-capped aluminum-doped ZnO thin films for transparent heater and near-infrared reflecting applications

Abstract

In this study, a series of optimization steps were performed in the production of Al-doped ZnO (AZO) thin films to tailor their properties as efficient transparent heaters and for near-infrared (NIR) reflectance. The films were produced on 50 × 75 mm2 glass substrates via magnetron sputtering and capped with a protective SiO2 layer. Processing parameters such as deposition temperature, film thickness, and annealing conditions were all optimized in terms of structure, morphology, optical/electrical properties, and heating/deicing behavior. Electro-thermal characteristics of the films were investigated using a thermal imaging infrared camera under various input voltages. The optimized AZO/SiO2 coatings displayed impressive room-temperature electrical conductivity (σ) of nearly 3774 S/cm with a sheet resistance (Rs) of 3.53 Ω/□, carrier concentration (η) of 1.14 × 1021, and Hall mobility (µ) of 20.48 cm2/Vs. These films exhibited very high optical transmittance (above 96%) in the visible range and reflectance (73% at 2500 nm) in the NIR region. The highest figure of merit (FOM) was achieved as 237 (× 10–3 Ω−1). Deicing tests were performed with samples cooled to − 40 °C and resulted with complete removal of ice/water only within 3 min. In addition, the heater exhibited a high surface temperature of 161 °C (12 V), a good thermal resistance value (219 °C cm2/Watts) with stable and reversible heating behavior. More importantly, these results reveal the potential of optimized AZO/SiO2 coatings as alternatives to transparent tin-doped indium oxide heaters and NIR reflecting mirrors for vehicular applications.

Graphic abstract

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10

References

  1. 1.

    F. Ruske, in Depos. Prop. TCOs (Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin für Materialien und Energie, Institute for Silicon Photovoltaics, Schwarzschildstraße 3, 12489 Berlin, Germany, 2012), pp. 301–330.

  2. 2.

    T.J. Kang, T. Kim, S.M. Seo, Y.J. Park, Y.H. Kim, Carbon N. Y. 49, 1087 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    J. Kang, H. Kim, K.S. Kim, S.-K. Lee, S. Bae, J.-H. Ahn, B.H. Hong, Nano Lett. 11, 5154 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    O. Ergun, S. Coskun, Y. Yusufoglu, H.E. Unalan, Nanotechnology 27, 1 (2016)

    Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    M.N. Gueye, A. Carella, R. Demadrille, J.P. Simonato, A.C.S. Appl, Mater. Interfaces 9, 27250 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    W.-S. Cheong, Y.-H. Kim, J.-M. Lee, C.-H. Hong, H.-Y. Choi, Y.-J. Kwak, and Y. S. Kim, Adv. Mater. Technol. 4, (2019).

  7. 7.

    H.-G. Cheong, J.-H. Kim, J.-H. Song, U. Jeong, and J.-W. Park, Thin Solid Films 589, 589,633 (2015).

  8. 8.

    D. Miao, S. Jiang, S. Shang, Z. Chen, Vacuum 106, 1 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    S.-H. Park, S.-M. Lee, E.-H. Ko, T.-H. Kim, Y.-C. Nah, S.-J. Lee, and H.-K. Kim, Sci. Rep. 6, (2016).

  10. 10.

    J. Park, D. Han, S. Choi, Y. Kim, J. Kwak, RSC Adv. 9, 5731 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    X. Li, S. Yu, L. Zhao, M. Wu, and H. Dong, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 31, (2020).

  12. 12.

    D. Lei, T. H. Ko, J.-Y. Yang, X.-D. Li, M.-K. Seo, H.-Y. Kim, and B.-S. Kim, Compos. Part B Eng. 166, (2018).

  13. 13.

    D. Langley, G. Giusti, C. Mayousse, C. Celle, D. Bellet, and J.-P. Simonato, Nanotechnology 24, (2013).

  14. 14.

    R. Gupta, K.D.M. Rao, S. Kiruthika, G.U. Kulkarni, A.C.S. Appl, Mater. Interfaces 8, 12559 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    D. T. Papanastasiou, A. Schultheiss, D. Muñoz-Rojas, C. Celle, A. Carella, J. P. Simonato, and D. Bellet, Adv. Funct. Mater. 30, (2020).

  16. 16.

    D.S.Y. Jayathilake, J.S. Sagu, K.G.U. Wijayantha, Mater. Lett. 237, 249 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    U. Betz, K.M. Olsson, J. Marthy, M.F. Escolá, F. Atamny, Surf. Coatings Technol. 200, 5751 (2006)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    T. Minami, Thin Solid Films 516, 5822 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    T. Minami, Thin Solid Films 516, 1314 (2008)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    N. Neves, Ceram. Appl. 3, 62 (2015)

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    S. Kohiki, M. Nishitani, T. Wada, J. Appl. Phys. 75, 2069 (1994)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Y.S. Liu, C.Y. Hsieh, Y.J. Wu, Y.S. Wei, P.M. Lee, H.M. Hsieh, C.Y. Liu, Appl. Surf. Sci. 282, 32 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    T. Minami, Semicond. Sci. Technol. 20, 34 (2005)

    Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    R. G. Gordon, MRS Bull. 25, (2000).

  25. 25.

    M. Layani, A. Kamyshny, S. Magdassi, Nanoscale 6, 5581 (2012)

    Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    Z. Zhang, C. Bao, W. Yao, S. Ma, L. Zhang, S. Hou, Superlattices Microstruct. 49, 644 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    D.S. Kim, J.H. Park, B.K. Shin, K.J. Moon, M. Son, M.H. Ham, W. Lee, J.M. Myoung, Appl. Surf. Sci. 259, 596 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    B.L. Zhu, S.J. Zhu, J. Wang, J. Wu, D.W. Zeng, C.S. Xie, Phys. E Low-Dimensional Syst. Nanostruct. 43, 1738 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    O. Kluth, B. Rech, L. Houben, S. Wieder, G. Schöpe, C. Beneking, H. Wagner, A. Löffl, H.W. Schock, Thin Solid Films 351, 247 (1999)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Y. Igasaki, H. Kanma, Appl. Surf. Sci. 169–170, 508 (2001)

    Google Scholar 

  31. 31.

    M. Chaves, R. Ramos, E. Martins, E. C. Rangel, N. C. Da Cruz, S. F. Durrant, and J. R. R. Bortoleto, Mater. Res. 22, (2019).

  32. 32.

    D.K. Kim, H.B. Kim, J. Alloys Compd. 509, 421 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  33. 33.

    M. Saad, A. Kassis, Mater. Chem. Phys. 136, 205 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  34. 34.

    P. Nunes, A. Malik, B. Fernandes, E. Fortunato, P. Vilarinho, R. Martins, Vacuum 52, 45 (1999)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    P. Nunes, E. Fortunato, R. Martins, Thin Solid Films 383, 277 (2001)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    K. Tominaga, M. Kataoka, H. Manabe, T. Ueda, I. Mori, Thin Solid Films 290–291, 84 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  37. 37.

    A. Rose, G.J. Exarhos, Thin Solid Films 308–309, 42 (1997)

    Google Scholar 

  38. 38.

    C. Lennon, R.B. Tapia, R. Kodama, Y. Chang, S. Sivananthan, M. Deshpande, J. Electron. Mater. 38, 1568 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  39. 39.

    E. Burstein, Phys. Rev. 93, 632 (1954)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  40. 40.

    W. Tang, D.C. Cameron, Thin Solid Films 238, 83 (1994)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    S. Yanfeng, W. Liu, H. Zhidan, L. Shaolin, Z. Zhao, G. Du, Vacuum 80, 981 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    A.K. Pradhan, R.M. Mundle, K. Santiago, J.R. Skuza, B. Xiao, K.D. Song, M. Bahoura, R. Cheaito, P.E. Hopkins, Sci. Rep. 4, 19 (2014)

    Google Scholar 

  43. 43.

    A.Y. Kim, K. Lee, J.H. Park, D. Byun, J.K. Lee, Phys. Status Solidi Appl. Mater. Sci. 211, 1923 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  44. 44.

    M. K. Roul, B. Obasogie, G. Kogo, J. R. Skuza, R. M. Mundle, and A. K. Pradhan, J. Appl. Phys. 122, (2017).

  45. 45.

    S. Ke, J. Xie, C. Chen, P. Lin, X. Zeng, L. Shu, L. Fei, Y. Wang, M. Ye, and D. Wang, Appl. Phys. Lett. 112, (2018).

  46. 46.

    R. Baetens, B.P. Jelle, A. Gustavsen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 94, 87 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  47. 47.

    D.G. Miao, S.X. Jiang, S.M. Shang, Z.M. Chen, J. Liu, Mater. Technol. 29, 321 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  48. 48.

    L. Gong, Z. Ye, J. Lu, L. Zhu, J. Huang, X. Gu, B. Zhao, Vaccum 84, 947 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  49. 49.

    R. Das, S. Ray, D Appl (Phys, Zinc, 2003).

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    D. Miao, S. Jiang, S. Shang, Z. Chen, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 127, 163 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    J. Ni, Z. Qingnan, X. Zhao, Prog. Org. Coatings 64, 317 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  52. 52.

    V.H. Nguyen, D. Bellet, B. Masenelli, D. Muñoz-Rojas, A.C.S. Appl, Nano Mater. 1, 6922 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  53. 53.

    V.H. Nguyen, U. Gottlieb, A. Valla, D. Muñoz, D. Bellet, D. Muñoz-Rojas, Mater. Horizons 5, 715 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  54. 54.

    K. Tominaga, T. Takao, A. Fukushima, T. Moriga, I. Nakabayashi, Vacuum 66, 511 (2002)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  55. 55.

    Y.C. Lin, J.H. Jiang, W.T. Yen, Appl. Surf. Sci. 255, 3629 (2009)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  56. 56.

    W. Chen, T.K.N. Nguyen, M. Wilmet, N. Dumait, O. Makrygenni, Y. Matsui, T. Takei, S. Cordier, N. Ohashi, T. Uchikoshi, F. Grasset, Nanoscale Adv. 1, 3693 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  57. 57.

    T. ÀÜÜ, Chinese Opt. Lett. (2013).

  58. 58.

    X. Li, W. Tang, C. Chen, C. Lin, and C. Xu, Mater. Res. Express 6, (2019).

  59. 59.

    H. Chen, Y.-H. Jeong, C.-B. Park, Trans. Electr. Electron. Mater. 10, 58 (2009)

    Google Scholar 

  60. 60.

    Q. Pan, X. Song, Mater. Sci. Pol. 35, 374 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  61. 61.

    P. Scherrer, Nachr. Ges. Wiss. Göttingen 26, 98 (1918)

    Google Scholar 

  62. 62.

    J.I. Langford, A.J.C. Wilson, J. Appl. Cryst. 11, 102 (1978)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. 63.

    V. Uvarov, I. Popov, Mater. Charact. 85, 111 (2013)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  64. 64.

    R. Hong, H. Qi, J. Huang, H. He, Z. Fan, J. Shao, Thin Solid Films 473, 58 (2005)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  65. 65.

    R. Cebulla, R. Wendt, and K. Ellmer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 1087, (1998).

  66. 66.

    O. Stenzel, The Physics of Thin Film Optical Spectra (2005).

  67. 67.

    G. Haacke, G. Haacke, J. Appl. Phys. 4086, 1 (1976)

    Google Scholar 

  68. 68.

    S. Hayamizu, H. Tabata, H. Tanaka, T. Kawai, J. Appl. Phys. 787, 2 (1996)

    Google Scholar 

  69. 69.

    W. Jeong, G. Park, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 65, 37 (2001)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  70. 70.

    Q. You, H. Cai, K. Gao, Z. Hu, S. Guo, P. Liang, J. Sun, N. Xu, J. Wu, J. Alloys Compd. 626, 415 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  71. 71.

    Y. Kim, W. Lee, D. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, Y. Kim, W. Lee, D. Jung, J. Kim, S. Nam, H. Kim, Appl. Phys. Lett. 171902, 1 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  72. 72.

    C. Guillén and J. Herrero, J. Appl. Phys. 073514, (2007).

  73. 73.

    C. G. Van De Walle, 85, 0 (2000).

  74. 74.

    B.L. Zhu, J. Wang, S.J. Zhu, J. Wu, R. Wu, D.W. Zeng, C.S. Xie, Thin Solid Films 519, 3809 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  75. 75.

    J.H. Park, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 49, 584 (2006)

    Google Scholar 

  76. 76.

    A. Phys, G.S. Camarda, Y. Cui, R. Gul, A. Hossain, G. Yang, R.M. Mundle, A.K. Pradhan, Appl. Phys. Lett. 242106, 1 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  77. 77.

    R. Tuyaerts, J. Raskin, J. Proost, Thin Solid Films 695, 137760 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  78. 78.

    N. M. S. Jahed, M. Mahmoudysepehr, and S. Sivoththaman, in 2015 IEEE 42nd Photovolt. Spec. Conf. PVSC (2015), pp. 0–3.

  79. 79.

    C. Tong, J. Yun, Y.J. Chen, D. Ji, Q. Gan, W.A. Anderson, A.C.S. Appl, Mater. Interfaces 8, 3985 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  80. 80.

    G. Fang, D. Li, B. Yao, Vaccum 68, 363 (2003)

    Google Scholar 

  81. 81.

    N. Prashant and P. S. K. Mukherjee, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 28 (2019).

  82. 82.

    W. Zhang, J. Xiong, L. Liu, X. Zhang, H. Gu, Sol. Energy Mater. Sol. Cells 153, 52 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  83. 83.

    X.C. Ma, Y. Zhao, D.L. Zhu, Y.M. Lu, P.J. Cao, W.J. Liu, S. Han, F. Jia, Mater. Technol. 29, 101 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  84. 84.

    G.J. Fang, D.J. Li, B. Yao 152, 139 (2002)

    Google Scholar 

  85. 85.

    X. Chen, W. Guan, G. Fang, X.Z. Zhao, Appl. Phys. Lett. 252, 1561 (2005)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  86. 86.

    L. Dejam, S. M. Elahi, H. Honarvar, S. Solaymani, and A. Ghaderi, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 685 (2016).

  87. 87.

    S. Singh, S. Park, J. Nanosci. Nanotechnol. 16, 861 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  88. 88.

    A. Mallick, S. Ghosh, D. Basak, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 119, 105240 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  89. 89.

    P.C. Yao, S.T. Hang, Y.S. Lin, W.T. Yen, Y.C. Lin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 1441 (2010)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  90. 90.

    J.H. Scofield, J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 8, 129 (1976)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  91. 91.

    C. C. Singh and E. Panda, J. Appl. Phys. 123, (2018).

  92. 92.

    F. Challali, D. Mendil, T. Touam, T. Chauveau, V. Bockelée, A. G. Sanchez, A. Chelouche, and M. P. Besland, Mater. Sci. Semicond. Process. 118, (2020).

  93. 93.

    M.Y. Rezk, M. Zeitoun, A.N. El-Shazly, M.M. Omar, N.K. Allam, J. Hazard. Mater. 378, 120679 (2019)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  94. 94.

    S. Sharma, R. Bayikadi, P. Swaminathan, RSC Adv. 6, 86586 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  95. 95.

    J.P. Xu, S.B. Shi, L. Li, X.S. Zhang, Y.X. Wang, X.M. Chen, Chinese Phys. Lett. 27, 4 (2010)

    Google Scholar 

  96. 96.

    L.N. Li, Y. Zhao, X.L. Chen, J. Sun, X.D. Zhang, Phys. Procedia 32, 687 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  97. 97.

    C. Singh, E. Panda, RSC Adv. 6, 48910 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  98. 98.

    N. Kumar, A.H. Chowdhury, B. Bahrami, M.R. Khan, Q. Qiao, M. Kumar, Thin Solid Films 700, 137916 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  99. 99.

    D.B. Potter, I.P. Parkin, C.J. Carmalt, RSC Adv. 8, 33164 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  100. 100.

    Y.-T. Li, C.F. Han, J.-F. Lin, Opt. Mater. Express 10, 249 (2020)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  101. 101.

    X. Li, Y. Wang, W. Liu, G. Jiang, C. Zhu, Mater. Lett. 85, 25 (2012)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  102. 102.

    R. Yu and W. Chan, HKBU Institutional Repository Optical and Electrical Properties of Aluminum-Doped ZnO, Hong Kong Baptist University, 2015.

  103. 103.

    N. Srinatha, Y.S. No, V.B. Kamble, S. Chakravarty, N. Suriyamurthy, B. Angadi, A.M. Umarji, W.K. Choi, RSC Adv. 6, 9779 (2016)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  104. 104.

    J. C. Hsu and Y. Y. Chen, Coatings 9, (2019).

  105. 105.

    B. Zhao, L. dan Tang, B. Wang, B. wu Liu, and J. heng Feng, J. Mater. Sci. Mater. Electron. 27, 10320 (2016).

  106. 106.

    P. Liu, P. Gao, X. Liu, H. Wang, J. He, X. Yang, Y. Zeng, B. Yan, J. Fang, J. Ye, Sol. RRL 2, 1 (2018)

    Google Scholar 

  107. 107.

    Z. Liu, J. Ji, J. Jiang, J. Wang, Optik (Stuttg). 155, 133 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  108. 108.

    S. Ghosh, A. Mallick, B. Dou, M.F.A.M. Van Hest, S.M. Garner, Sol. Energy 174, 815 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  109. 109.

    L. Sun, J.T. Grant, J.G. Jones, N.R. Murphy, Opt. Mater. (Amst). 84, 146 (2018)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  110. 110.

    D. Miao, S. Jiang, S. Shang, and Z. Chen, Ceram. Int. 1 (2014).

  111. 111.

    D. Miao, H. Zhao, Q. Peng, S. Shang, S. Jiang, Ceram. Appl. 41, 1595 (2015)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  112. 112.

    A. Piegari, F. François, Optical Thin Films and Coatings: From Materials to Applications, 1st edn. (Woodhead Publishing Ltd., Cambridge, 2013).

    Google Scholar 

  113. 113.

    S. Kiruthika, R. Gupta, G.U. Kulkarni, RSC Adv. 4, 49745 (2014)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  114. 114.

    D. Lordan, M. Burke, M. Manning, A. Martin, A. Amann, D. O’Connell, R. Murphy, C. Lyons, A.J. Quinn, A.C.S. Appl, Mater. Interfaces 9, 4932 (2017)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  115. 115.

    S. Xie, T. Li, Z. Xu, and Y. Wang, Nanoscale 1 (2018).

  116. 116.

    D. Sui, Y. Huang, L. Huang, J. Liang, Y. Ma, Y. Chen, Small 7, 3186 (2011)

    CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

This study was supported financially by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (TÜBİTAK; Project Number: 118M013), for which the authors are thankful.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hasan Akyıldız.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Supplementary Information

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file1 (DOCX 831 KB)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Can, H.A., Tönbül, B., Pişkin, F. et al. Processing optimization of SiO2-capped aluminum-doped ZnO thin films for transparent heater and near-infrared reflecting applications. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 32, 5116–5137 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-021-05245-6

Download citation