Alcohol solvent treatment of PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer for optimized inverted perovskite solar cells


Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used as a hole transport materials in perovskite solar cells, due to a variety of suitable properties. However, the existence of the insulated PSS chain leads to the low electrical conductivity, which should be improved for the further development of inverted perovskite solar cells. In this study, three alcohol solvents were proposed for post-treatment of PEDOT:PSS thin films, which utilized the electrostatic shielding effect of alcohol molecules to promote phase separation of the PEDOT chain and the PSS chain. At the same time, The insulated PSS chain was removed by dissolving in highly hydrophilic alcohols. In the end, we successfully improved the conductivity of PEDOT:PSS thin films. By ethanol solvent treatment, the short-circuit current density of the perovskite solar cell based on glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS was increased from 15.64 to 17.45 mA/cm2, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) reached 11.36%, which was 25% higher than the traditional structure. For flexible devices, a preliminary PCE of 9.20% was achieved.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    M.M. Lee, J. Teuscher, T. Miyasaka, T.N. Murakami, H.J. Snaith, Science 338, 643–647 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    H. Zhou, Q. Chen, G. Li, S. Luo, T.B. Song, H.S. Duan, Z. Hong, J. You, Y. Liu, Y. Yang, Science 345, 542–546 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  3. 3.

    Y. Bai, S. Xiao, C. Hu, T. Zhang, X. Meng, Q. Li, Y. Yang, K.S. Wong, H. Chen, S. Yang, Nano Energy 34, 58–68 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Z. Yu, L. Sun, Adv. Energy Mater. 5, 1500213 (2015)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  5. 5.

    J.N. Joong, H. Na, J.E. Hyuk, T.Y. Yang, L.Y. Guk, K. Geunjin, S. Hee-Won, I.S. Sang, L. Jaemin, S. Jangwon, Nat. Energy 3, 682–689 (2018)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Q. Jiang, Z. Chu, P. Wang, X. Yang, H. Liu, Y. Wang, Z. Yin, J. Wu, X. Zhang, J. You, Adv. Mater. 29, 1703852 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  7. 7.

    T. Liu, C. Ke, H. Qin, Z. Rui, Q. Gong, Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1600457 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. 8.

    Q. Lin, A. Armin, P.L. Burn, P. Meredith, Acc. Chem. Res. 49, 545–553 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    K. Jiang, F. Wu, G. Zhang, P.C.Y. Chow, C. Ma, S. Li, K.S. Wong, L. Zhu, H. Yan, J. Mater. Chem. A 7, 897 (2019)

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    W. Zhang, B. Zhao, Z. He, X. Zhao, H. Wang, S. Yang, H. Wu, C. Yong, Energy Environ. Sci. 6, 1956–1964 (2013)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    J. He, P. Gao, M. Liao, X. Yang, Z. Ying, S. Zhou, J. Ye, Y. Cui, Acs Nano 9, 6522–6531 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Y. Xia, K. Sun, J. Ouyang, Adv. Mater. 24, 2436–2440 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    L. Chen, X. Xie, Z. Liu, E.C. Lee, J. Mater. Chem. A 5, 6974–6980 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    K. Chen, Q. Hu, T. Liu, L. Zhao, D. Luo, J. Wu, Y. Zhang, W. Zhang, F. Liu, T.P. Russell, Adv. Mater. 28, 10718–10724 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  15. 15.

    Q. Wang, C.-C. Chueh, M. Eslamian, A.K.-Y. Jen, Acs Appl. Mater. Interfaces 8, 32068–32076 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    X. Huang, K. Wang, C. Yi, T. Meng, X. Gong, Adv. Energy Mater. 6, 1501773 (2016)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    K. Lim, S. Ahn, Y. Kim, Y. Qi, T. Lee, Energy Environ. Sci. 9, 932–939 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    H. Di, T.H. Goh, J. Kong, Y. Zheng, A.D. Taylor, Nanoscale 9, 4236–4243 (2017)

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    H. Liu, X. Li, L. Zhang, Q. Hong, J. Tang, A. Zhang, C. Ma, Org. Electron. 47, 220–227 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    J.P. Thomas, K.T. Leung, J. Mater. Chem. 4, 17537–17542 (2016)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    D. Huang, Z. Xu, S. Zhao, Y. Li, L. Zhao, S.Q. Jin, Appl. Surf. Sci. 353, 1253–1259 (2015)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    J.P. Thomas, L. Zhao, D. McGillivray, K.T. Leung, J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 2383 (2014)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    G. Liu, X. Xie, Z. Liu, G. Cheng, E.-C. Lee, Nanoscale 10, 11043–11051 (2018)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    D. Alemu, H. Wei, K. Ho, C. Chu, Energy Environ. Sci. 5, 9662–9671 (2012)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    U. Lang, E. Müller, N. Naujoks, J. Dual, Adv. Func. Mater. 19, 1215–1220 (2009)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  26. 26.

    J. Sun, W.W. Gerberich, L.F. Francis, Prog. Org. Coat. 59, 115–121 (2007)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  27. 27.

    B. Vaagensmith, K.M. Reza, M.N. Hasan, h elbohy, N. Adhikari, A. Dubey, N. Kantack, E. Gaml, Q. Qiao, Acs Appl. Mater. Interfaces 9, 35861–35870 (2017)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

  28. 28.

    J.Y. Kim, J.H. Jung, D.E. Lee, J. Joo, Synth. Met. 126, 311–316 (2002)

    CAS  Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (61974074), the Natural Science Foundation of Tianjin (17JCYBJC21200, 18JCQNJC71800) and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, Nankai University (63191101, 63191740, 63191745).

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hongkun Cai.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing financial interests.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary file 1 (PDF 979 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Liu, Y., Cai, H., Chu, Y. et al. Alcohol solvent treatment of PEDOT:PSS hole transport layer for optimized inverted perovskite solar cells. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron (2020).

Download citation