One of the applications of wide band gap semiconductors is high temperature operation. That application requires high temperature compatible (i) joining materials such as sinter Ag, (ii) encapsulation resins such as imide type primers or molding compounds, and (iii) metallization for those materials. Ag metallization, the best candidate metallization for sinter Ag materials, has difficulty in bonding to encapsulation resins. Conversely, Ni/Au-flash metallization enables strong resin adhesion but also demonstrates poor reliability for sintered Ag joints. There is no single metallization compatible to both sintered Ag and encapsulation resin for high temperature application. This paper reports on a single metallization, electroless plated CoW metallization, which has demonstrated the capability to achieve both (i) high-temperature reliability (250 °C for 500 h) for sintered Ag joints and (ii) high-temperature adhesion (at 225 °C) for encapsulation resins. Such results have not been achieved with either Ag or Au metallization. The shear strength of sintered Ag joints on CoW metallization exceeded 40 MPa. TEM observation revealed excellent bonding between the sintered Ag and the metal Co of the CoW metallization. Furthermore, CoW metallization also showed strong resin adhesion (about 21 MPa) at 225 °C. XPS analysis identified metal Co for bonding to sinter Ag and, Co(OH)2 and WOx for bonding to resin on the top surface of CoW metallization layer. The foregoing results indicate that CoW may well represent a new metallization process for the fabrication of high reliability and high-temperature compatible SiC power modules.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price includes VAT for USA
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.
J.B. Casady, R.W. Johnson, Status of silicon carbide (SiC) as a wide-bandgap semiconductor for high-temperature applications: a review. Solid State Electron. 39, 1409–1422 (1996)
C. Buttay, D. Planson, B. Allard, D. Bergogne, P. Bevilacqua, C. Joubert, M. Lazar, C. Martin, H. Morel, D. Tournier, C. Raynaud, State of the art of high temperature power electronics. Mater. Sci. Eng., B 176, 283–288 (2011)
F. Wang, Z. Zhang, Overview of silicon carbide technology: device, converter, system, and application. CPSS Trans. Power Electron. Appl. 1, 13–32 (2016)
J.A. Carr, D. Hotz, J.C. Balda, H.A. Mantooth, A. Ong, A. Agarwal, Assessing the impact of SiC MOSFETs on converter interfaces for distributed energy resources, IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 24, 260–270 (2009)
J. Zhu, H. Kim, H. Chen, R. Erickson, D. Maksimovic (2018) High Efficiency SiC traction inverter for electric vehicle applications, 33nd annual IEEE applied power electronics conference and exposition (APEC) 1428-1433
B. Whitaker, A. Barkley, Z. Cole, B. Passmore, D. Martin, T.R. McNutt, A.B. Lostetter, J.S. Lee, K. Shiozaki, A high-density, high-efficiency, isolated on-board vehicle BATTERY charger utilizing silicon carbide power devices. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 29, 2606–2617 (2014)
K. Hamada, M. Nagao, M. Ajioka, F. Kawai, SiC-Emerging power device technology for next-generation electrically powered environmentally friendly vehicles. IEEE Trans. Electron Devices 62, 278–285 (2015)
R.W. Johnson, J.L. Evans, P. Jacobsen, J.R. Thompson, M. Christopher, The changing automotive environment: high-temperature electronics. IEEE Trans. Electron. Packag. Manuf. 27, 164–176 (2004)
B. Hu, J.O. Gonzalez, L. Ran, H. Ren, Z. Zeng, W. Lai, B. Gao, O. Alatise, H. Lu, C. Bailey, P. Mawby, Failure and reliability analysis of a SiC power module based on stress comparison to a Si device. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 17, 727–737 (2017)
P.O. Quintero, F.P. McCluskey, Temperature cycling reliability of high-temperature lead-free die-attach technologies. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 11, 531–539 (2011)
M. Bouarroudj, Z. Khatir, J.P. Ousten, S. Lefebvre, Temperature-level effect on solder lifetime during thermal cycling of power module. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 8, 471–477 (2008)
R. Khazaka, L. Mendizabal, D. Henry, R. Hanna, Survey of high-temperature reliability of power electronics packaging components. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 30, 2456–2464 (2015)
K. Suganuma, S. Sakamoto, N. Kagami, D. Wakuda, K.S. Kim, M. Nogi, Low-temperature low-pressure die attach with hybrid silver particle paste. Microelectron. Reliab. 52, 375–380 (2012)
Y. Gao, H. Zhang, W. Li, J. Jiu, S. Nagao, T. Sugahara, K. Suganuma, Die bonding performance using bimodal Cu particle paste under different sintering atmospheres. J. Electron. Mater. 46, 4575–4581 (2017)
H. Zhang, W. Li, Y. Gao, H. Zhang, J. Jiu, K. Suganuma, Enhancing low-temperature and pressureless sintering of micron silver paste based on an ether-type solvent. J. Electron. Mater. 46, 5201–5208 (2017)
S.A. Paknejad, G. Dumas, G. West, G. Lewis, S.H. Mannan, Microstructure evolution during 300 °C storage of sintered Ag nanoparticles on Ag and Au substrates. J. Alloy. Compd. 617, 994–1001 (2014)
K.S. Siow, Mechanical properties of nano-silver joints as die attach materials. J. Alloy. Compd. 514, 6–19 (2012)
F. Yu, J. Cui, Z. Zhou, K. Fang, R.W. Johnson, M.C. Hamilton, Reliability of Ag sintering for power semiconductor die attach in high-temperature applications. IEEE Trans. Power Electron. 32, 7083–7095 (2017)
Y. Yao, G.Q. Lu, D. Boroyevich, K.D.T. Ngo, Survey of high-temperature polymeric encapsulants for power electronics packaging. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. 5, 168–181 (2015)
Y. Yan, X. Shi, J. Liu, T. Zhao, Y. Yu, Thermosetting resin system based on novolakand bismaleimide for resin-transfer molding. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 83, 1651–1657 (2002)
T. Fan, H. Zhang, P. Shang, C. Li, C. Chen, J. Wang, Z. Liu, H. Zhang, K. Suganuma, Effect of electroplated Au layer on bonding performance of Ag pastes. J. Alloy. Compd. 731, 1280–1287 (2018)
C. Chen, K. Suganuma, T. Iwashige, K. Sugiura, K. Tsuruta, High-temperature reliability of sintered microporous Ag on electroplated Ag, Au, and sputtered Ag metallization substrates. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 29, 1785–1797 (2018)
F. Iacona, M. Garilli, G. Marietta, O. Puglisi, S. Pignataro, Interfacial reactions in polyimide/metal systems. J. Mater. Res. 6, 861–870 (1991)
H. Matsumura, K. Kamada, N. Tanoue, M. Atsuta, Effect of thione primers on bonding of noble metal alloys with an adhesive resin. J. Dent. 28, 287–293 (2000)
K. Harikrishnan, S. John, K.N. Srinivasan, J. Praveen, M. Ganesan, P.M. Kavimani, An overall aspect of electroless Ni-P depositions-a review article. Metall. Mater. Trans. A 37, 1917–1925 (2006)
K. Suganuma, S. Kim, K. Kim, High-temperature lead-free solders: properties and possibilities. J. Min. Met. Mater. Soc. 61, 64–71 (2009)
C.W. Chu, P.D. Murphy, Adhesion of polyimides to alumina without coupling agents. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 6, 1119–1135 (1992)
L.P. Buchwalter, Adhesion of polyimides to metal and ceramic surfaces: an overview. J. Adhes. Sci. Technol. 4, 697–721 (1990)
A. Herrera-Gomez, M. Bravo-Sanchez, O. Ceballos-Sanchez, M.O. Vazquez-Lepe, Practical methods for background subtraction in photoemission spectra. Surf. Interface Anal. 46, 897–905 (2014)
M.F. Koenig, J.T. Grant, Comparison of factor analysis and curve-fitting for data analysis in XPS. J. Electron Spectros. Relat. Phenomena 41, 145–156 (1986)
Q. Xu, Y. Mei, X. Li, G.Q. Lu, Correlation between interfacial microstructure and bonding strength of sintered nanosilver on ENIG and electroplated NiAu direct-bond-copper (DBC) substrates. J. Alloy. Compd. 675, 317–324 (2016)
K. Sugiura, T. Iwashige, K. Tsuruta, C. Chen, S. Nagao, T. Sugahara, K. Suganuma, Thermal stability improvement of sintered Ag die-attach materials by addition of transition metal compound particles. Appl. Phys. Lett. 114, 161903 (2019)
C. Chen, C. Choe, Z. Zhang, D. Kim, K. Suganuma, Low-stress design of bonding structure and its thermal shock performance (− 50 to 250°C) in SiC/DBC power die-attached modules. J. Mater. Sci.: Mater. Electron. 29, 14335–14346 (2018)
N.S. McIntyre, M.G. Cook, X-ray photoelectron studies on some oxides and hydroxides of cobalts, nickel, and copper. Anal. Chem. 47, 2208–2213 (1975)
M.C. Biesinger, B.P. Payne, A.P. Grosvenor, L.W.M. Lau, A.R. Gerson, R.S.C. Smart, Resolving surface chemical states in XPS analysis of first row transition metals, oxides and hydroxides: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni. Appl. Surf. Sci. 257, 2717–2730 (2011)
M. Katoh, Y. Takeda, Chemical state analysis of tungsten and tungsten oxides using an electron probe microanalyzer. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 43, 7292–7295 (2004)
O.Y. Khyzhun, XPS, XES and XAS studies of the electronic structure of tungsten oxides. J. Alloy. Compd. 305, 1–6 (2000)
R.W. Powell, C.Y. Ho, P.E. Liley, Thermal conductivity of the elements. J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data 3, 279–421 (1972)
B.C. Wadell, Transmission line design handbook (Artech House, Boston, 1991), p. 383
E.U. Condon, H. Odishaw, Handbook of Physics (McGraw Hill, New York, 1958)
T. Decorps, P.H. Haumesser, S. Olivier, A. Roule, M. Joulaud, O. Pollet, X. Avale, G. Passemard, Electroless deposition of CoWP: material characterization and process optimization on 300 mm wafers. Microelectron. Eng. 83, 2082–2087 (2006)
This work was supported in part by the New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) project “Establishment of a high-density and miniaturization foundation technology for the application of SiC power module in high temperature” (Grant No. P10022).
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Iwashige, T., Endo, T., Sugiura, K. et al. CoW metallization for high strength bonding to both sintered Ag joints and encapsulation resins. J Mater Sci: Mater Electron 30, 11151–11163 (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10854-019-01458-y