Advertisement

Investigation of moisture uptake into printed circuit board laminate and solder mask materials

  • Hélène Conseil-Gudla
  • Visweswara C. Gudla
  • Shruti Borgaonkar
  • Morten S. Jellesen
  • Rajan Ambat
Article

Abstract

Presence of moisture in a printed circuit board (PCB) laminate, typically made of glass fibres reinforced epoxy polymer, significantly influences the electrical functionality in various ways and causes problems during soldering process. This paper investigates the water uptake of laminates coated with different solder mask materials and exposed to saturated water vapour and liquid water. The solder masks are characterised for their microstructure and constituent phases using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The observations are correlated with the moisture absorption characteristic such as diffusivity, permeability, and solubility. In addition, the effect of a reflow soldering simulation on microstructural changes and on increase of water uptake of the materials has been analysed.

Keywords

PCBs Print Circuit Board Moisture Absorption Dielectric Loss Tangent Saturated Water Vapour 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported in part by the Danish Council for Independent Research, Technology and Production Sciences through the ICCI Project and in part by the Innovation Fund Denmark through the IN-SPE Project. The authors would like to acknowledge the commitment and help of the industrial partners.

References

  1. 1.
    C.A. Smith, Water Absorption in Glass Fibre-Epoxide Resin Laminates. Circuit World 14(3), 22–26 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M.G. Pecht, H. Ardebili, A.A. Shukla, J.K. Hagge, D. Jennings, Moisture ingress into organic laminates. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Technol. 22(1), 104–110 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    M. Ma, L. Sood, B. Pecht, “Effect of Moisture on Thermal Properties of Halogen-Free and Halogenated Printed-Circuit-Board Laminates. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 11(1), 66–75 (2011)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    M. Ma, L. Sood, B. Pecht, Effects of Moisture Content on Dielectric Constant and Dissipation Factor of Printed Circuit Board Materials. Trans. ECS. Soc. Electrochem. 27(1), 227–236 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    T. Kumazawa, M. Oishi, M. Todoki, High-humidity deterioration and internal structure change of epoxy-resin for electrical insulation. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 1(1), 133–138 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. Kumagal, N. Yoshimura, Impacts of thermal aging and water absorption on the surface electrical and chemical properties of cycloaliphatic epoxy resin. IEEE Trans. Dielectr. Electr. Insul. 7(3), 424–431 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    A. Fan, X. Zhou, J. Chandra, Package structural integrity analysis considering moisture, proceeding in 58th Electronic Components and Technology Conference (ECTC), pp. 1054–1066, 2008Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    S.J. Krumbein, Metallic electromigration phenomena. IEEE Trans. Compon. Hybrids Manuf. Technol. 11(1), 5–15 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    L. J. Turbini, J. a. Jachim, G. B. Freeman, J. F. Lane, Characterizing Water Soluble Fluxes: Surface Insulation Resistance VS Electrochemical Migration, proceeding in 13th IEEE/CHMT International Electronics Manufacturing Technology Symposium, pp. 80–84, 1992Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    T.L. Augis, J.A. DeNure, D.G. LuValle, M.J. Mitchell, J.P. Pinnel, M.R. Welsher, Humidity threshold for conductive anodic filaments in epoxy glass printed wiring boards, proceeding in International Society for the Advancement of Material and Process Engineering symposium (SAMPE), vol. 3, pp. 1023–1030, 1989Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    D. Jennings, M. Pecht, Assessing Time-To-Failure Due To Conductive Filament Formation In Multilayer Organic Laminates. IEEE Trans. Compon. Packag. Manuf. Technol. Part B 17(3), 269–276 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    M. G. Sanapala, R. Pecht, Characterization of FR-4 printed circuit board laminates before and after exposure to lead free soldering conditions, Master thesis from the University of Maryland, Department of mechanical engineering, 2008Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    M. Sood, B. Pecht, Controlling Moisture in Printed Circuit Boards, proceeding in IPC APEX EXPO Technical Conference, vol. 1, pp. 1–53, 2011Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    C. Lea, The Effect of Solder Mask on PCB Solderability. Circuit World 15(1), 12–21 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    K. S. Hansen, M. S. Jellesen, P. Moller, P. J. S. Westermann, R. Ambat, Effect of solder flux residues on corrosion of electronics, proceeding in Annual Reliability and Maintainability Symposium (RAMS), pp. 502–508, 2009Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    H. Conseil, M. Stendahl Jellesen, R. Ambat, Contamination profile on typical printed circuit board assemblies vs soldering process. Solder. Surf. Mt. Technol. 26(4), 194–202 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    X. J. Fan, Moisture Sensitivity of Plastic Packages of IC Devices (Springer US Media, LLC, New York, 2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    C. Fu, Chun Hsien; Chang, David; Chen, “Film type solder mask evaluation for flip chip BGA, proceeding in International Microsystems, Packaging, Assembly and Circuits Technology conference (IMPACT), vol. 5, pp. 121–123, 2009Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Y. Guo, W. Li, A. A. Tseng, Mechanical Characterization of Solder Mask Materials, proceeding in 7th intersociety conference of Thermal and Thermomechanical Phenomena in Electronic System (ITherm), pp. 362–365, 2000Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    J.A. Marongelli, S. Serenson, Effect of solder mask and surface mount adhesive types on a PCB manufacturing process, proceeding in National Electronic Packaging and Production Conference, vol. 2, pp. 731–746, 1999Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G.K. Van Der Wel, O.C.G. Adan, Moisture in organic coatings: a review. Prog. Org. Coatings 37, 1–14 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    B. Ritchie, Conformal Coating Over Existing Process Residues, proceeding in National Electronic Packaging and Production Conference, vol. 1, pp. 11–28, 1999Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    P. Schroeder, Uber Erstarrungs–und Quellungserscheinungen von Gelatine. Z. Phys. Chem. 45, 57 (1903)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    J.W.G. Musty, R.E. Pattle, P.J.A. Smith, The swelling of rubber in liquid and vapor (Schroeder’s paradox). J. Appl. Chem. 16(8), 221 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    P. Choi, R. Datta, Sorption in proton exchange membranes: an explanation of Schroeder’s paradox. ACS Div. Fuel Chem. Prepr. 48(1), 300–301 (2003)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    V. Verdingovas, M.S. Jellesen, R. Ambat, Impact of NaCl Contamination and Climatic Conditions on the Reliability of Printed Circuit Board Assemblies. IEEE Trans. Device Mater. Reliab. 14(1), 42–51 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    V. Verdingovas, M.S. Jellesen, R. Ambat, Solder Flux Residues and Humidity-Related Failures in Electronics: Relative Effects of Weak Organic Acids Used in No-Clean Flux Systems. J. Electron. Mater. 44(4), 1116–1127 (2015)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    X.I.N. Lu, G.U. Xu, P.G. Hofstra, R.C. Bajcar, Moisture – Absorption, Dielectric Relaxation, and Thermal Conductivity Studies of Polymer Composites. J. Polym. Sci. Part B 36, 2259–2265 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    C. Guiles, ‘Everything you ever wanted to know about laminates… but where afraid to ask, ninth edition’ (2008), http://www.arlon-med.com
  30. 30.
    E.T. Haugan, P. Dalsjø, Characterization of the material properties of two FR4 printed circuit board laminates, Norwegian Defence Research Establishment (FFI) report, 2013Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hélène Conseil-Gudla
    • 1
  • Visweswara C. Gudla
    • 1
  • Shruti Borgaonkar
    • 1
  • Morten S. Jellesen
    • 1
  • Rajan Ambat
    • 1
  1. 1.Materials and Surface Engineering, Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnical University of DenmarkKongens LyngbyDenmark

Personalised recommendations