Photoelectrochemical determination of Pb2+ ions by using TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on FTO substrates via a facile two-stage hydrothermal route
Aligned TiO2 nanorod arrays (NRAs) were fabricated on TiCl4 pretreated fluorine doped tin oxide (SnO2:F, FTO) substrates by a facile hydrothermal route. The effects of TiCl4 concentration (20, 40 and 60 mM) and post-growth treatments were investigated on the PEC performance of TiO2 NRAs. The optimal PEC performance, owning a low Pb2+ detection limit of ~2 nM, was achieved in the TiO2 NRAs which was pretreated with 20 mM TiCl4 and sintered after growth. It implied that the modification of FTO substrates with a low TiCl4 concentration was critical for achieving the ideal morphology and performance of TiO2 NRAs which reached a balance of light harvesting, carrier transport and ion diffusion. Additionally, it was also worth mentioning that the TiCl4 post-treatment wasn’t beneficial to improve the PEC performance of the compact TiO2 NRAs.
KeywordsTiO2 SnO2 TiCl4 Seeding Layer TiO2 Electrode
This work is financially supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (2015XKZD01).