Al and X (Sn, Cu, In) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals

  • I. Kara
  • A. Yildiz
  • G. Yildiz
  • B. Dogan
  • N. Serin
  • T. Serin


Al and X (Sn, Cu, In) co-doped ZnO nanocrystals were obtained by a sol–gel process. Structural, electrical and optical properties of the samples were investigated by means of X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity measurements, and UV–VIS spectroscopy, respectively. Depending on co-dopant element, significant changes were observed in structural properties. A correlation was established in terms of tensile strain between microstructure, optical and electrical properties. By adding the co-dopant elements, tensile strain significantly became larger than that of undoped ZnO. Doping of ZnO with these co-dopants was found to degrade transmittance of the ZnO. The average transmittance which dramatically decreases with co-dopants was found to be correlated with calculated tensile strain. It was obtained to be nearly as 39 % for Al–Cu co-doped ZnO in visible range which was the lowest among others. Resistivity was observed to decrease upon the tensile strain, contrary to expectation. It reduced from 660 Ω cm of ZnO to 6.36 Ω cm with Al and In co-dopants.


Tensile Strain Average Transmittance Zinc Acetate Dihydrate Indium Chloride Transparent Conducting Material 
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This work is supported by the Ankara University BAP under Project Number 14B0443001. We would also like to thank Prof. Dr. Yusuf Kağan Kadıoğlu for providing XRD measurements.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. Kara
    • 1
  • A. Yildiz
    • 2
  • G. Yildiz
    • 1
  • B. Dogan
    • 1
  • N. Serin
    • 1
  • T. Serin
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Engineering Physics, Faculty of EngineeringAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Natural SciencesYıldırım Beyazıt UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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